Articles by Lesley Mathews Griner in JoVE
Generation of High-Throughput Three-Dimensional Tumor Spheroids for Drug Screening Lesley Mathews Griner1, Kalyani Gampa1, Toan Do2, Huyen Nguyen2, David Farley2, Christopher J. Hogan2, Douglas S. Auld2, Serena J. Silver1 1Oncology Drug Discovery: Molecular Pharmacology, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 2Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research Across a wide variety of disease indications, more physiologically relevant models are being developed and implemented into drug discovery programs. The new model system described here demonstrates how three-dimensional tumor spheroids can be cultured and screened in a high-throughput 1536-well plate-based system to search for new oncology drugs.
Other articles by Lesley Mathews Griner on PubMed
Design and Discovery of N-(2-Methyl-5'-morpholino-6'-((tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)oxy)-[3,3'-bipyridin]-5-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide (RAF709): A Potent, Selective, and Efficacious RAF Inhibitor Targeting RAS Mutant Cancers Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Jun, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28557458 RAS oncogenes have been implicated in >30% of human cancers, all representing high unmet medical need. The exquisite dependency on CRAF kinase in KRAS mutant tumors has been established in genetically engineered mouse models and human tumor cells. To date, many small molecule approaches are under investigation to target CRAF, yet kinase-selective and cellular potent inhibitors remain challenging to identify. Herein, we describe 14 (RAF709) [ Aversa , Biaryl amide compounds as kinase inhibitors and their preparation . WO 2014151616, 2014 ], a selective B/C RAF inhibitor, which was developed through a hypothesis-driven approach focusing on drug-like properties. A key challenge encountered in the medicinal chemistry campaign was maintaining a balance between good solubility and potent cellular activity (suppression of pMEK and proliferation) in KRAS mutant tumor cell lines. We investigated the small molecule crystal structure of lead molecule 7 and hypothesized that disruption of the crystal packing would improve solubility, which led to a change from N-methylpyridone to a tetrahydropyranyl oxy-pyridine derivative. 14 proved to be soluble, kinase selective, and efficacious in a KRAS mutant xenograft model.
Antitumor Properties of RAF709, a Highly Selective and Potent Inhibitor of RAF Kinase Dimers, in Tumors Driven by Mutant RAS or BRAF Cancer Research. Mar, 2018 | Pubmed ID: 29343524 Resistance to the RAF inhibitor vemurafenib arises commonly in melanomas driven by the activated BRAF oncogene. Here, we report antitumor properties of RAF709, a novel ATP-competitive kinase inhibitor with high potency and selectivity against RAF kinases. RAF709 exhibited a mode of RAF inhibition distinct from RAF monomer inhibitors such as vemurafenib, showing equal activity against both RAF monomers and dimers. As a result, RAF709 inhibited MAPK signaling activity in tumor models harboring either BRAF alterations or mutant N- and KRAS-driven signaling, with minimal paradoxical activation of wild-type RAF. In cell lines and murine xenograft models, RAF709 demonstrated selective antitumor activity in tumor cells harboring BRAF or RAS mutations compared with cells with wild-type BRAF and RAS genes. RAF709 demonstrated a direct pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship in tumor models harboring KRAS mutation. Furthermore, RAF709 elicited regression of primary human tumor-derived xenograft models with BRAF, NRAS, or KRAS mutations with excellent tolerability. Our results support further development of inhibitors like RAF709, which represents a next-generation RAF inhibitor with unique biochemical and cellular properties that enables antitumor activities in RAS-mutant tumors. In an effort to develop RAF inhibitors with the appropriate pharmacological properties to treat RAS mutant tumors, RAF709, a compound with potency, selectivity, and properties, was developed that will allow preclinical therapeutic hypothesis testing, but also provide an excellent probe to further unravel the complexities of RAF kinase signaling. .