In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (8)

Articles by Linda J. Lowe-Krentz in JoVE

Other articles by Linda J. Lowe-Krentz on PubMed

Biomarkers of Drug-induced Skeletal Muscle Injury in the Rat: Troponin I and Myoglobin

Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology. Oct, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19628585

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the utility of fast-twitch skeletal muscle troponin I (fsTnI) and urinary myoglobin (uMB) as biomarkers of skeletal muscle injury in 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. fsTnI and uMB were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared with standard clinical assays including creatine kinase, aldolase, aspartate aminotransferase, and histopathological assessments. Detectable levels of uMB were normalized to urinary creatinine to control for differences in renal function. Seven compounds, including those with toxic effects on skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, or liver, were evaluated. fsTnI was typically nondetectable (< 5.9 ng/ml serum) in vehicle-treated female and male rats but increased in a dose-dependent manner to at least 300 ng/ml in cerivastatin-induced severe fast-twitch specific myotoxicity. Minimal myopathy induced by investigational compounds BMS-600149 and BMS-687453 increased serum fsTnI to about 30-50 ng/ml, suggesting a reasonable dynamic range for detecting mild to severe skeletal muscle toxicity. In direct contrast, fsTnI was only marginally increased relative to population control values in rats treated with triamcinolone acetonide, which produces muscle atrophy or the cardiotoxins isoproterenol and CoCl2. uMB was typically nondetectable (< 1.6 ng/ml urine) in vehicle-treated female and male rats but increased to approximately 140, 300, and 30 ng/mg creatinine in rats treated with cerivastatin, BMS-687453, and triamcinolone acetonide, respectively. Cardiotoxicity also increased uMB in rats treated with isoproterenol and CoCl2 with urine concentrations ranging from 20 to 30 ng/mg creatinine. Severe hepatotoxicity (coumarin) did not significantly affect serum fsTnI or uMB levels. Collectively, these data suggest that fsTnI is specific for skeletal muscle toxicity, whereas uMB is nonspecific, increasing with skeletal muscle and cardiac toxicity. Accordingly, the complement of fsTnI and uMB, in conjunction with standard clinical assays may comprise a useful diagnostic panel for assessing drug-induced myopathy in rats.

Heparin Treatment of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Results in the Synthesis of the Dual-specificity Phosphatase MKP-1

Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. May, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20235148

The ability of heparin to block proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells has been well documented. It is clear that heparin treatment can decrease the level of ERK activity in vascular smooth muscle cells that are sensitive to heparin. In this study, the mechanism by which heparin induces decreases in ERK activity was investigated by evaluating the dual specificity phosphatase, MKP-1, in heparin treated cells. Heparin induced MKP-1 synthesis in a time and concentration dependent manner. The time-course of MKP-1 expression correlated with the decrease in ERK activity. Over the same time frame, heparin treatment did not result in decreases in MEK-1 activity which could have, along with constitutive phosphatase activity, accounted for the decrease in ERK activity. Antibodies against a heparin receptor also induced the synthesis of MKP-1 along with decreasing ERK activity. Blocking either phosphatase activity or synthesis also blocked heparin-induced decreases in ERK activity. Consistent with a role for MKP-1, a nuclear phosphatase, heparin treated cells exhibited decreases in nuclear ERK activity more rapidly than cells not treated with heparin. The data support MKP-1 as a heparin-induced phosphatase that dephosphorylates ERK, decreasing ERK activity, in vascular smooth muscle cells.

Actin Realignment and Cofilin Regulation Are Essential for Barrier Integrity During Shear Stress

Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Apr, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23060131

Vascular endothelial cells and their actin microfilaments align in the direction of fluid shear stress (FSS) in vitro and in vivo. To determine whether cofilin, an actin severing protein, is required in this process, the levels of phospho-cofilin (serine-3) were evaluated in cells exposed to FSS. Phospho-cofilin levels decreased in the cytoplasm and increased in the nucleus during FSS exposure. This was accompanied by increased nuclear staining for activated LIMK, a cofilin kinase. Blocking stress kinases JNK and p38, known to play roles in actin realignment during FSS, decreased cofilin phosphorylation under static conditions, and JNK inhibition also resulted in decreased phospho-cofilin during FSS exposure. Inhibition of dynamic changes in cofilin phosphorylation through cofilin mutants decreased correct actin realignment. The mutants also decreased barrier integrity as did inhibition of the stress kinases. These results identify the importance of cofilin in the process of actin alignment and the requirement for actin realignment in endothelial barrier integrity during FSS.

Roles of Mouse Sperm-associated Alpha-L-fucosidases in Fertilization

Molecular Reproduction and Development. Apr, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23426913

Sperm-associated α-L-fucosidases have been implicated in fertilization in many species. Previously, we documented the existence of α-L-fucosidase in mouse cauda epididymal contents, and showed that sperm-associated α-L-fucosidase is cryptically stored within the acrosome and reappears within the sperm equatorial segment after the acrosome reaction. The enrichment of sperm membrane-associated α-L-fucosidase within the equatorial segment of acrosome-reacted cells implicates its roles during fertilization. Here, we document the absence of α-L-fucosidase in mouse oocytes and early embryos, and define roles of sperm associated α-L-fucosidase in fertilization using specific inhibitors and competitors. Mouse sperm were pretreated with deoxyfuconojirimycin (DFJ, an inhibitor of α-L-fucosidase) or with anti-fucosidase antibody; alternatively, mouse oocytes were pretreated with purified human liver α-L-fucosidase. Five-millimolar DFJ did not inhibit sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding, membrane binding, or fusion and penetration, but anti-fucosidase antibody and purified human liver α-L-fucosidase significantly decreased the frequency of these events. To evaluate sperm-associated α-L-fucosidase enzyme activity in post-fusion events, DFJ-pretreated sperm were microinjected into oocytes, and 2-pronuclear (2-PN) embryos were treated with 5 mM DFJ with no significant effects, suggesting that α-L-fucosidase enzyme activity does not play a role in post-fusion events and/or early embryo development in mice. The recognition and binding of mouse sperm to the ZP and oolemma involves the glycoprotein structure of α-L-fucosidase, but not its catalytic action. These observations suggest that deficits in fucosidase protein and/or the presence of anti-fucosidase antibody may be responsible for some types of infertility.

Human Sperm CRISP2 is Released from the Acrosome During the Acrosome Reaction and Re-associates at the Equatorial Segment

Molecular Reproduction and Development. Jun, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23661501

Sperm CRISP2 has been proposed to be involved in sperm-egg fusion. After the acrosome reaction, it appears at the equatorial segment (EqS) of human sperm; the mechanism underlying the appearance of CRISP2 at the EqS remains unknown, though. Here, we provide evidence showing the re-association of sperm acrosomal CRISP2 at the EqS during the acrosome reaction. Results showed that F-actin is not involved in the relocalization of CRISP2. We found that basic, but not acidic, conditions can solubilize CRISP2 from sperm cells, suggesting that CRISP2 is a component of the acrosome and that it is released from the acrosome during the acrosome reaction. Purified, biotinylated human sperm acrosomal CRISP2 binds to the EqS of acrosome-reacted sperm in a dose-dependent manner, revealing that CRISP2 detected at the EqS of acrosome-reacted sperm comes from the population stored in the acrosome. The association of CRISP2 at the EqS is very strong, and does not depend on ionic interactions or intermolecular disulfide bonds. Interestingly, the restriction of CRISP2 at the EqS was diminished when EGTA was present in the media, indicating that Ca(2+) is required for maintaining CRISP2 at the EqS. This study supports the possibility that CRISP2 may help modify the EqS membrane to make this domain fusion-competent.

HEPARIN RESPONSES IN VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS INVOLVE CGMP DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE(PKG)

Journal of Cellular Physiology. Jun, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24911927

Published data provide strong evidence that heparin treatment of proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells results in decreased signaling through the ERK pathway and decreases in cell proliferation. In addition, these changes have been shown to be mimicked by antibodies that block heparin binding to the cell surface. Here, we provide evidence that the activity of protein kinase G is required for these heparin effects. Specifically, a chemical inhibitor of protein kinase G, Rp-8-pCPT-cGMS, eliminates heparin and anti-heparin receptor antibody effects on bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into growth factor stimulated cells. In addition, protein kinase G inhibitors decrease heparin effects on ERK activity, phosphorylation of the transcription factor ELK-1, and heparin-induced MKP-1 synthesis. Although transient, the levels of cGMP increase in heparin treated cells. Finally, knock down of protein kinase G also significantly decreases heparin effects in growth factor activated vascular smooth muscle cells. Together, these data indicate that heparin effects on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation depend, at least in part, on signaling through protein kinase G. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Heparin Decreases in Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα)-induced Endothelial Stress Responses Require Transmembrane Protein 184A and Induction of Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26769965

Despite the large number of heparin and heparan sulfate binding proteins, the molecular mechanism(s) by which heparin alters vascular cell physiology is not well understood. Studies with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) indicate a role for induction of dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) that decreases ERK activity and results in decreased cell proliferation, which depends on specific heparin binding. The hypothesis that unfractionated heparin functions to decrease inflammatory signal transduction in endothelial cells (ECs) through heparin-induced expression of DUSP1 was tested. In addition, the expectation that the heparin response includes a decrease in cytokine-induced cytoskeletal changes was examined. Heparin pretreatment of ECs resulted in decreased TNFα-induced JNK and p38 activity and downstream target phosphorylation, as identified through Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Through knockdown strategies, the importance of heparin-induced DUSP1 expression in these effects was confirmed. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy indicated that heparin treatment of ECs reduced TNFα-induced increases in stress fibers. Monoclonal antibodies that mimic heparin-induced changes in VSMCs were employed to support the hypothesis that heparin was functioning through interactions with a receptor. Knockdown of transmembrane protein 184A (TMEM184A) confirmed its involvement in heparin-induced signaling as seen in VSMCs. Therefore, TMEM184A functions as a heparin receptor and mediates anti-inflammatory responses of ECs involving decreased JNK and p38 activity.

Transmembrane Protein 184A Is a Receptor Required for Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Responses to Heparin

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26769966

Vascular cell responses to exogenous heparin have been documented to include decreased vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation following decreased ERK pathway signaling. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which heparin interacts with cells to induce those responses has remained unclear. Previously characterized monoclonal antibodies that block heparin binding to vascular cells have been found to mimic heparin effects. In this study, those antibodies were employed to isolate a heparin binding protein. MALDI mass spectrometry data provide evidence that the protein isolated is transmembrane protein 184A (TMEM184A). Commercial antibodies against three separate regions of the TMEM184A human protein were used to identify the TMEM184A protein in vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. A GFP-TMEM184A construct was employed to determine colocalization with heparin after endocytosis. Knockdown of TMEM184A eliminated the physiological responses to heparin, including effects on ERK pathway activity and BrdU incorporation. Isolated GFP-TMEM184A binds heparin, and overexpression results in additional heparin uptake. Together, these data support the identification of TMEM184A as a heparin receptor in vascular cells.

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