Articles by Louis S. Saporito in JoVE
A Protocol for Conducting Rainfall Simulation to Study Soil Runoff Leonard C. Kibet1, Louis S. Saporito2, Arthur L. Allen1, Eric B. May3, Peter J. A. Kleinman2, Fawzy M. Hashem1, Ray B. Bryant2 1Department of Agriculture, Food and Resource Sciences, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, 2Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit, USDA - Agricultural Research Service, 3Department of Natural Sciences, University of Maryland Eastern Shore A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall to packed soil boxes in a study of the fate and transport of urea, a nonpoint source environmental contaminant. Under uniform soil and rainfall conditions, antecedent soil moisture content exerted strong control over urea loss in surface runoff.
A Protocol for Collecting and Constructing Soil Core Lysimeters Louis S. Saporito1, Ray B. Bryant1, Peter J. A. Kleinman1 1Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit, USDA - Agricultural Research Service A detailed method for extraction and assembly of intact soil core lysimeters and their use for study of leachate and associated loss of nutrients from surface applied poultry litter is demonstrated.
Other articles by Louis S. Saporito on PubMed
Using Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum to Remove Dissolved Phosphorus from Agricultural Drainage Waters Journal of Environmental Quality. May-Jun, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22565248 High levels of accumulated phosphorus (P) in soils of the Delmarva Peninsula are a major source of dissolved P entering drainage ditches that empty into the Chesapeake Bay. The objective of this study was to design, construct, and monitor a within-ditch filter to remove dissolved P, thereby protecting receiving waters against P losses from upstream areas. In April 2007, 110 Mg of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a low-cost coal combustion product, was used as the reactive ingredient in a ditch filter. The ditch filter was monitored from 2007 to 2010, during which time 29 storm-induced flow events were characterized. For storm-induced flow, the event mean concentration efficiency for total dissolved P (TDP) removal for water passing through the gypsum bed was 73 ± 27% confidence interval (α = 0.05). The removal efficiency for storm-induced flow by the summation of load method was 65 ± 27% confidence interval (α = 0.05). Although chemically effective, the maximum observed hydraulic conductivity of FGD gypsum was 4 L s(-1), but it decreased over time to
Persistence and Surface Transport of Urea-Nitrogen: A Rainfall Simulation Study Journal of Environmental Quality. May, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27136175 Studies of harmful algal blooms and associated urea concentrations in the Chesapeake Bay and in coastal areas around the globe strongly suggest that elevated urea concentrations are associated with harmful algal blooms. The observed increased frequency and toxicity of these blooms in recent decades has been correlated with increased agricultural use of N inputs and increased use of urea as a preferred form of commercial N. This rainfall simulation study sought to assess the potential for different N fertilizers and manures to contribute to urea in runoff from a Coastal Plain soil on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Under worst-case conditions, ~1% of urea-N applied as commercial fertilizer and surface-applied poultry litter was lost in runoff in a simulated rainfall event, roughly equivalent to a 1-yr return period rain storm in the study area, 12 h after application. Cumulative urea-N losses, including four subsequent weekly rainfall events, approached 1.7% from urea-N fertilizer containing a urease inhibitor. Urea-N loss from incorporated poultry litter was negligible, and losses from dairy manure were intermediate. These losses are likely confined to hydrological contributing areas that extend several meters from a drainage ditch or stream for storms with frequent recurrence intervals. Cumulative dissolved N losses in runoff (urea-N + ammonium-N + nitrate-N) as a proportion of total applied plant-available N were