In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (10)

Articles by Maiko K. Okajima in JoVE

Other articles by Maiko K. Okajima on PubMed

Cyanobacterial Megamolecule Sacran Efficiently Forms LC Gels with Very Heavy Metal Ions

Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. Aug, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 20050044

We extracted the megamolecular polysaccharide sacran, which contains carboxylate and sulfate groups, from the jellylike extracellular matrix (ECM) of the cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum, which has mineral adsorption bioactivity. We investigated the gelation properties of sacran binding with various heavy metal ions. The sacran chain adsorbed heavier metal ions such as indium, rare earth metals, and lead ions more efficiently to form gel beads. In addition, trivalent metal ions adsorbed onto the sacran chains more efficiently than did divalent ions. The investigation of the metal ion binding ratio on sacran chains demonstrated that sacran adsorbed gadolinium trivalent ions more efficiently than indium trivalent ions. Gel bead formation may be closely correlated to the liquid-crystalline organization of sacran.

Cyanobacterial Polysaccharide Gels with Efficient Rare-earth-metal Sorption

Biomacromolecules. Jul, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20560613

The cyanobacterial polysaccharide sacran, which contains carboxylate and sulfate groups, was extracted from Aphanothece sacrum , and the metal sorption behavior of sacran was investigated. Heterogels, where the sacran chains were trapped by polyvinyl alcohol networks, were prepared and immersed in NdCl3 solutions to shrink and cloud due to Nd binding. These heterogels had the ability to sorb excessive amounts of Nd ions, more than the stoichiometric ratio of 1:3 (sacran anion/Nd). Furthermore, the sacran-containing gels sorbed Nd ions under highly acidic conditions below pH 2 more efficiently than alginate-containing gels. We speculated that the strong Nd condensation effect of the sulfate groups in sacran under the acidic conditions may enhance the Nd sorption to the carboxylate groups.

Gelation Behavior by the Lanthanoid Adsorption of the Cyanobacterial Extracellular Polysaccharide

Biomacromolecules. Nov, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20923217

The self-organization behavior of an extracellular polysaccharide (sacran) extracted from the cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum in response to lanthanoid ion adsorption was investigated. Consequently, cryogenic TEM images revealed that sacran could be cross-linked by Nd(3+) trivalent ions and formed a fibrous nanostructural network containing water. Furthermore, sacran adsorbed trivalent metal ions at a 3:1 ratio, which was the theoretical ionic adsorption and showed more efficient adsorption than alginate based on electric conductivity titration. The critical gelation concentrations, Cg, where sacran formed tough gels upon metal ion binding were estimated. The Cg for trivalent metal ions was lower than that for divalent ions, and the Cg for lanthanoid ions was particularly low at 10(-3) to 10(-4) M, changing every four elemental numbers. The extracellular matrix of Aphanothece sacrum, sacran, may adsorb metal ions to create fibrous nanostructures that reinforce the jelly matrix.

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Sacran, a Novel Polysaccharide from Aphanothece Sacrum, on 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene-induced Allergic Dermatitis in Vivo

Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology : Official Publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology. Feb, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22289731

Sacran is a newly discovered sulfated polysaccharide extracted from an algae, Aphanothece sacrum, grown in a river of the Kyushu region in Japan.

Anti-allergic Effects of Vernonia Amygdalina Leaf Extracts in Hapten-induced Atopic Dermatitis-like Disease in Mice

Allergology International : Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology. Dec, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22918214

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by pruritic and eczematous skin lesions. In this study, AD-like disease was induced in NC/Nga mice so as to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extracts (VAM).

Photoshrinkage in Polysaccharide Gels with Trivalent Metal Ions

Biomacromolecules. Dec, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23121693

The giant anionic polysaccharide "sacran", which is composed of 6-deoxyhexoses, pentoses, uronic acids as well as hexoses, showed hydrophobization and insolubilization phenomena in response to ultraviolet light irradiation. The sacran solution became turbid, and microparticles were formed by photoirradiation. To visualize the results of this photoreaction, anionic polysaccharide gels cross-linked by metal cations were used. As a result, we observed that sacran-gels with trivalent metal ions gradually contracted depending on the photoirradiation energy. In contrast, alginate gels used as a comparison degraded instead of contracting. This photoshrinkage of the sacran gels may be attributed to the hydrophobization of uronic acid based on photodecarboxylation. We propose that sacran-metal ion gels can function as effective, photoresponsive gels.

Anionic Complexes of MWCNT with Supergiant Cyanobacterial Polyanions

Biopolymers. Jan, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23097225

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were well dispersed in an aqueous solution of the cyanobacterial polysaccharide, sacran, with an ultra-high molecular weight >10 million g/mol. MWCNTs powder was put into aqueous solutions of various polysaccharides including sacran and was dispersed under sonication. As a result of the turbidity measurement of the supernatant, it was found that sacran showed the highest MWCNT-dispersion efficiency of all the polysaccharides used here. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopic (Cryo-TEM) studies directly demonstrated the existence of MWCNTs in the supernatant, and high-resolution TEM observation revealed that MWCNTs covered by sacran chains made their efficient dispersion in water. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated the existence of MWCNT in dried sample from supernatant and the interaction between MWCNT and sacran. The ζ-potential measurement of the dispersion indicated the negative surface charges of the sacran/MWCNT complexes. Then the MWCNT complexes were able to fabricate by ionic interaction; electrophoresis of the anionic complex formed the sacran/MWCNT gels on the anode while the droplet of sacran/MWCNT dispersion formed gel beads in the presence of the lanthanoid cations.

Ionic State and Chain Conformation for Aqueous Solutions of Supergiant Cyanobacterial Polysaccharide

Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics. Apr, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23679443

We have investigated the electric conductivity, dielectric relaxation behavior, and viscosity for the aqueous solution of cyanobacterial megamolecules, molecular weight =1.6×10(7) g/mol, named sacran. Sacran is an anionic polyelectrolyte which has carboxylate and sulfate groups on the saccharide chain. The electric conductivity and the zero shear viscosity demonstrated three crossover concentrations at 0.004, 0.02, and 0.1 wt%. The viscosity was found to be scaled as ~c(1.5), ~c(0.5), ~c(1.5), and ~c(3.0) with increasing the sacran concentration. At 0.1 wt%, the sacran chain formed a weak gel which exhibits macroscopic liquid crystal domains including Schlieren texture. Therefore, these crossover concentrations are considered to be the overlap concentration, entanglement concentration, and gelation concentration (or critical polyelectrolyte concentration), respectively. Dielectric relaxation analysis exhibited the fact that sacran has two types of counterions with different counterion-polyion interaction, i.e., strongly bound and loosely bound counterions. The dielectric parameters such as relaxation time or relaxation strength are sensitive to both the entanglement concentration and the gelation concentration, but not the overlap concentration. The number density of bound counterions calculated from the relaxation strength revealed that the counterion is condensed on the sacran chain with raising the sacran concentrations. The decrease in the charge density of the sacran chain reduces the repulsive force between the chains and this would cause the helix transformation or gelation behavior. The chain conformation of sacran in pure water and the gelation mechanism are discussed in relation with the behavior of polyelectrolytes and liquid crystals.

Milliscale Self-Integration of Megamolecule Biopolymers on a Drying Gas-Aqueous Liquid Crystalline Interface

Biomacromolecules. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27077450

A drying environment is always a proposition faced by dynamic living organisms using water, which are driven by biopolymer-based micro- and macrostructures. Here, we introduce a drying process for aqueous liquid crystalline (LC) solutions composed of biopolymer with extremely high molecular weight components such as polysaccharides, cytoskeletal proteins, and DNA. On controlling the mobility of the LC microdomain, the solutions showed milliscale self-integration starting from the unstable gas-LC interface during drying. In particular, we first identified giant rod-like microdomains (∼1 μm diameter and more than 20 μm length) of the mega-molecular polysaccharide, sacran, which is remarkably larger than other polysaccharides. These microdomains led to the formation of a single milliscale macrodomain on the interface. In addition, the dried polymer films on a solid substrate also revealed that such integration depends on the size of the microdomain. We envision that this simple drying method will be useful not only for understanding the biopolymer hierarchization at the macroscale level but also for preparation of surfaces with direction controllability, as seen in living organisms, for use in various fields such as diffusion, mechanics, and photonics.

Drying-Induced Self-Similar Assembly of Megamolecular Polysaccharides Through Nano and Submicron Layering

Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. Feb, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28190355

We propose a self-similar assembly to generate planar orientation of megamolecular polysaccharides on the nanometer scale and submicron scale. Evaporating the aqueous liquid crystalline (LC) solution on a planar air-LC interface induces polymer layering by self-assembly and rational action of macroscopic capillary forces between the layers. To clarify the mechanisms of nanometer- and submicron-scale layering, the polymer films are investigated by electron microscopy.

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