In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (5)

Articles by Manoj Jha in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Spatial Multiobjective Optimization of Agricultural Conservation Practices using a SWAT Model and an Evolutionary Algorithm

1School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, 2Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Department of Economics, Iowa State University, 3Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina A&T University, 4Iowa Geological and Water Survey

JoVE 4009

Other articles by Manoj Jha on PubMed

Least-cost Control of Agricultural Nutrient Contributions to the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone

Ecological Applications : a Publication of the Ecological Society of America. Sep, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20945758

In 2008, the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico, measuring 20 720 km2, was one of the two largest reported since measurement of the zone began in 1985. The extent of the hypoxic zone is related to nitrogen and phosphorous loadings originating on agricultural fields in the upper Midwest. This study combines the tools of evolutionary computation with a water quality model and cost data to develop a trade-off frontier for the Upper Mississippi River Basin specifying the least cost of achieving nutrient reductions and the location of the agricultural conservation practices needed. The frontier allows policymakers and stakeholders to explicitly see the trade-offs between cost and nutrient reductions. For example, the cost of reducing annual nitrate-N loadings by 30% is estimated to be US$1.4 billion/year, with a concomitant 36% reduction in P and the cost of reducing annual P loadings by 30% is estimated to be US$370 million/year, with a concomitant 9% reduction in nitrate-N.

Risk Analysis of Seasonal Stream Water Quality Management

Water Science and Technology : a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research. 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 21045334

Seasonal discharge programs, which take advantage of temporal variation of stream assimilative capacity, are cost effective. However, these seasonal discharge control programs should not increase the risk of water quality violations. A method is presented to estimate the allowable pollutant loads under both seasonal and non-seasonal discharge control programs for a single discharger that maintains the same level of risk of water quality violation. An enhanced in-stream water quality model QUAL2E-UNCAS was applied to a 39-km river reach of the Des Moines River below Des Moines Sewage Treatment Plant (DMSTP) in Iowa. The model was calibrated for dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and ammonia as nitrogen with standard errors of 10, 17, and 23% by comparing with the observed water quality data. Monte-Carlo simulation technique was then implemented for seasonal and non-seasonal discharge program to assess the water quality violation risk and the allowable pollutant load. The results indicated that the four-seasonal program offers about 136% increase in BOD loading and 61% increase in ammonia loading when compared with the non-seasonal program without any increase in the violation probabilities, whereas the two-seasonal program only offers 13% decrease in BOD loading and 56% increase in ammonia loading. It is found that the multi-discharge program was beneficial for both water quality indicators, and thus provides a way of reducing the overall cost of waste treatment.

Port Retrieval for Salvage of Tissue Expansion in Case of Lost or Malfunctioning Port

Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery : Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India. Jul, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 21217977

Tissue expansion though a promising modality of reconstructive surgery is fraught with many complications. In addition to expander-related complications, subcutaneous port-related mishaps during tissue expansion, though infrequent, can result in procedure failures. We are reporting two patients with port-related complications. In one patient, there was failure to localise the port and the other had a leaking port. Both the expanders were salvaged by retrieving the ports. In the former, as the port was competent, it was simply exteriorised. But in the later case, the connecting tube was retrieved and the incompetent port was replaced with a Luer lock external port. Both the cases were successfully salvaged without any further complications. Expansions were completed and requisite reconstructive end points were achieved.

Dormant Primary Cutaneous Actinomycosis: Acute Exacerbation After 16 Years

Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery : JPRAS. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 20400384

Actinomycosis of head and neck are secondary to a nidus in the oral cavity and the aero-digestive tract. Primary actinomycosis without such predisposition is mostly due to trauma. We are presenting a case of this rare variant involving the forehead. The patient had a swelling over the forehead after a windscreen injury, which was asymptomatic for 17 years. However, 1 year ago, there was a repeat blunt trauma on the same site, but there was no breach of skin. Following this, the swelling became tender and started increasing in size. There was no response to a course of antibiotic and the patient had no concomitant history of any systemic illness. The swelling was excised and the biopsy revealed actinomycosis. This presentation of primary actinomycosis after such a long dormancy has never been reported before. This is yet another unusual presentation of actinomycosis, which is notoriously misdiagnosed owing to its rarity and numerous differential diagnoses.

Potential Water Quality Changes Due to Corn Expansion in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

Ecological Applications : a Publication of the Ecological Society of America. Jun, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21774414

While biofuels may yield renewable fuel benefits, there could be downsides in terms of water quality and other environmental stressors, particularly if corn is relied upon exclusively as the feedstock. The consequences of increased corn production will depend importantly on where (and how) the additional corn is grown, which, in turn, depends on the characteristics of land and its associated profitability. Previous work has relied on rules of thumb for allocating land to increased acreage based on historical land use or other heuristics. Here, we advance our understanding of these phenomena by describing a modeling system that links an economics-driven land use model with a watershed-based water quality model for the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). This modeling system is used to assess the water quality changes due to increased corn acreage, which is associated with higher relative corn prices. We focus on six scenarios based on six realistic pairs of corn and soybean prices which correspond to a scale of decreasing soybean to corn price ratio. These price-driven land use changes provide estimates of the water quality effects that current biofuel policies may have in the UMRB. Our analysis can help evaluate the costs and environmental consequences associated with implementation strategies for the biofuel mandates of the new energy bill. The amounts of total N and P delivered to the outlet of the UMRB (located at Grafton, Illinois, USA) rise as corn production becomes more intensive in the region. Our results indicate that a 14.4% in corn acreage in the watershed due to corn intensification in the most economically profitable locations would result in a 5.4% increase in total nitrogen loads and in a 4.1% increase in total phosphorus loads at Grafton. Our most aggressive scenario, driven by high but not out of reach crop prices, results in about a 57% increase in corn acreage with a corresponding 18.5% increase in N and 12% increase in P. These are somewhat conservative increases in nutrients, compared to those of previous studies, likely due to our focus on cultivated cropland which is already heavily fertilized.

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