Articles by Maria Marsal in JoVE
AFM and Microrheology in the Zebrafish Embryo Yolk Cell Maria Marsal1, Ignasi Jorba2, Elena Rebollo1, Tomas Luque2, Daniel Navajas2, Enrique Martín-Blanco1 1Instituto de Biología Molecular de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 2Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia, Universitat de Barcelona and CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias The lack of tools to measure material properties and tensional parameters in vivo prevents validating their roles during development. We employed atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoparticle-tracking to quantify mechanical features on the intact zebrafish embryo yolk cell during epiboly. These methods are reliable and widely applicable avoiding intrusive interventions.
Other articles by Maria Marsal on PubMed
Polarized Cortical Tension Drives Zebrafish Epiboly Movements The EMBO Journal. | Pubmed ID: 27834222 The principles underlying the biomechanics of morphogenesis are largely unknown. Epiboly is an essential embryonic event in which three tissues coordinate to direct the expansion of the blastoderm. How and where forces are generated during epiboly, and how these are globally coupled remains elusive. Here we developed a method, hydrodynamic regression (HR), to infer 3D pressure fields, mechanical power, and cortical surface tension profiles. HR is based on velocity measurements retrieved from 2D+T microscopy and their hydrodynamic modeling. We applied HR to identify biomechanically active structures and changes in cortex local tension during epiboly in zebrafish. Based on our results, we propose a novel physical description for epiboly, where tissue movements are directed by a polarized gradient of cortical tension. We found that this gradient relies on local contractile forces at the cortex, differences in elastic properties between cortex components and the passive transmission of forces within the yolk cell. All in all, our work identifies a novel way to physically regulate concerted cellular movements that might be instrumental for the mechanical control of many morphogenetic processes.
Contractility, Differential Tension and Membrane Removal Lead Zebrafish Epiboly Biomechanics Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). | Pubmed ID: 28590839 Precise tissue remodeling during development is essential for shaping embryos and optimal organ function. Epiboly is an early gastrulation event by which the blastoderm expands around the yolk to engulf it. Three different layers are involved in this process, an epithelial layer (the enveloping layer, EVL), the embryo proper, constituted by the deep cells (DCs), and the yolk cell. Although teleost epiboly has been studied for many years, a clear understanding of its mechanics was still missing. Here we present new information on the cellular, molecular and mechanical elements involved in epiboly that, together with some other recent data and upon comparison with previous biomechanical models, lets conclude that the expansion of the epithelia is passive and driven by active cortical contraction and membrane removal in the adjacent layer, the External Yolk Syncytial Layer (E-YSL). The isotropic actomyosin contraction of the E-YSL cortex generates an anisotropic stress pattern and a directional net movement consequence of the differences in the deformation response of the 2 opposites adjacent domains (EVL and the Yolk Cytoplasmic Layer - YCL). Contractility is accompanied by the local formation of membrane folds and its removal by Rab5ab dependent macropinocytosis. The increase in area of the epithelia during the expansion is achieved by cell-shape changes (flattening) responding to spherical geometrical cues. The counterbalance between the geometry of the embryo and forces dissipation among different elements is therefore essential for epiboly global coordination.