Articles by Marilee J. Wick in JoVE
An Optimized Evans Blue Protocol to Assess Vascular Leak in the Mouse Marilee J. Wick1,2, Julie W. Harral1,2, Zoe L. Loomis1,2, Edward C. Dempsey1,2,3 1Cardiovascular Pulmonary Research Laboratory, University of Colorado Denver, 2Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, 3Denver VA Medical Center In this article, an economical, optimized, and simple protocol is described which uses the Evans blue dye method for assessing plasma extravasation in the organs of FVBN mice that can be adapted for use in other strains, species, and other organs or tissues.
Other articles by Marilee J. Wick on PubMed
Neprilysin Null Mice Develop Exaggerated Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Response to Chronic Hypoxia The American Journal of Pathology. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19234135 Neprilysin is a transmembrane metalloendopeptidase that degrades neuropeptides that are important for both growth and contraction. In addition to promoting carcinogenesis, decreased levels of neprilysin increases inflammation and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia, which may predispose to vascular remodeling. Early pharmacological studies showed a decrease in chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension with neprilysin inhibition. We used a genetic approach to test the alternate hypothesis that neprilysin depletion increases chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Loss of neprilysin had no effect on baseline airway or alveolar wall architecture, vessel density, cardiac function, hematocrit, or other relevant peptidases. Only lung neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and a subtle neuropeptide imbalance were found. After chronic hypoxia, neprilysin-null mice exhibited exaggerated pulmonary hypertension and striking increases in muscularization of distal vessels. Subtle thickening of proximal media/adventitia not typically seen in mice was also detected. In contrast, adaptive right ventricular hypertrophy was less than anticipated. Hypoxic wild-type pulmonary vessels displayed close temporal and spatial relationships between decreased neprilysin and increased cell growth. Smooth muscle cells from neprilysin-null pulmonary arteries had increased proliferation compared with controls, which was decreased by neprilysin replacement. These data suggest that neprilysin may be protective against chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in the lung, at least in part by attenuating the growth of smooth muscle cells. Lung-targeted strategies to increase neprilysin levels could have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of this disorder.
Decreased Neprilysin and Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20813891 Studies with genetically engineered mice showed that decreased expression of the transmembrane peptidase neprilysin (NEP) increases susceptibility to hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling and hypertension; in hypoxic wild-type mice, expression is decreased early in distal pulmonary arteries, where prominent vascular remodeling occurs. Therefore, in humans with smoke- and hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling, as in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary activity/expression of NEP may likewise be decreased.
Protection Against Vascular Leak in Neprilysin Transgenic Mice with Complex overexpression pattern Transgenic Research. 12, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27369050 Neprilysin (NEP) is a cell surface metallopeptidase found in many tissues. Based mostly on pharmacological manipulations, NEP has been thought to protect blood vessels from plasma extravasation. We have suggested that NEP may protect against pulmonary vascular injury. However, these prior studies did not utilize mice which overexpress NEP. The aims of the present investigation were to develop and characterize doubly transgenic (DT) mice that overexpress NEP universally and conditionally, and to investigate the protective effect that overexpressed NEP may have against plasma extravasation in the vasculature. The duodenum, which is often used to assess vascular permeability, and in which the NEP protein was overexpressed in our DT mice two-fold, was selected as our experimental preparation. We found that substance P-induced plasma extravasation was decreased substantially (3.5-fold) in the duodenums of our doxycycline-treated DT mice, giving independent evidence of NEP's protective effects against plasma extravasation. Transgenic lung NEP protein was not stably expressed in the DT mice, so we were not able to test the effect of NEP overexpression in the lung. Although initially overexpressed nearly nine-fold at that site, pulmonary NEP protein overexpression eventually dissipated. Surprisingly, at a time when there was no lung transgenic NEP protein overexpression, lung NEP mRNA expression was still increased 23-fold, indicating that the expression defect probably is not transcriptional. These studies help to characterize our complex transgenic model of NEP overexpression and further demonstrate NEP's protective effects against plasma extravasation.