Articles by Maritza Zavaleta-Pastor in JoVE
Defining Substrate Specificities for Lipase and Phospholipase Candidates Diana X. Sahonero-Canavesi1, Maritza Zavaleta-Pastor1, Lourdes Martínez-Aguilar1, Isabel M. López-Lara1, Otto Geiger1 1Centro de Ciencias Genómicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Many predicted (phospho)lipases are poorly characterized with regard to their substrate specificities and physiological functions. Here we provide a protocol to optimize enzyme activities, search for natural substrates, and propose physiological functions for these enzymes.
Other articles by Maritza Zavaleta-Pastor on PubMed
Sinorhizobium Meliloti Phospholipase C Required for Lipid Remodeling During Phosphorus Limitation Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20018679 Rhizobia are Gram-negative soil bacteria able to establish nitrogen-fixing root nodules with their respective legume host plants. Besides phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin, and phosphatidylethanolamine, rhizobial membranes contain phosphatidylcholine (PC) as a major membrane lipid. Under phosphate-limiting conditions of growth, some bacteria replace their membrane phospholipids with lipids lacking phosphorus. In Sinorhizobium meliloti, these phosphorus-free lipids are sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol, ornithine-containing lipid, and diacylglyceryl trimethylhomoserine (DGTS). Pulse-chase experiments suggest that the zwitterionic phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine and PC act as biosynthetic precursors of DGTS under phosphorus-limiting conditions. A S. meliloti mutant, deficient in the predicted phosphatase SMc00171 was unable to degrade PC or to form DGTS in a similar way as the wild type. Cell-free extracts of Escherichia coli, in which SMc00171 had been expressed, convert PC to phosphocholine and diacylglycerol, showing that SMc00171 functions as a phospholipase C. Diacylglycerol , in turn, is the lipid anchor from which biosynthesis is initiated during the formation of the phosphorus-free membrane lipid DGTS. Inorganic phosphate can be liberated from phosphocholine. These data suggest that, in S. meliloti under phosphate-limiting conditions, membrane phospholipids provide a pool for metabolizable inorganic phosphate, which can be used for the synthesis of other essential phosphorus-containing biomolecules. This is an example of an intracellular phospholipase C in a bacterial system; however, the ability to degrade endogenous preexisting membrane phospholipids as a source of phosphorus may be a general property of Gram-negative soil bacteria.