In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (13)

Articles by Markita P. Landry in JoVE

Other articles by Markita P. Landry on PubMed

Characterization of Photoactivated Singlet Oxygen Damage in Single-molecule Optical Trap Experiments

Biophysical Journal. Oct, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19843445

Optical traps or "tweezers" use high-power, near-infrared laser beams to manipulate and apply forces to biological systems, ranging from individual molecules to cells. Although previous studies have established that optical tweezers induce photodamage in live cells, the effects of trap irradiation have yet to be examined in vitro, at the single-molecule level. In this study, we investigate trap-induced damage in a simple system consisting of DNA molecules tethered between optically trapped polystyrene microspheres. We show that exposure to the trapping light affects the lifetime of the tethers, the efficiency with which they can be formed, and their structure. Moreover, we establish that these irreversible effects are caused by oxidative damage from singlet oxygen. This reactive state of molecular oxygen is generated locally by the optical traps in the presence of a sensitizer, which we identify as the trapped polystyrene microspheres. Trap-induced oxidative damage can be reduced greatly by working under anaerobic conditions, using additives that quench singlet oxygen, or trapping microspheres lacking the sensitizers necessary for singlet state photoexcitation. Our findings are relevant to a broad range of trap-based single-molecule experiments-the most common biological application of optical tweezers-and may guide the development of more robust experimental protocols.

DNA Target Sequence Identification Mechanism for Dimer-active Protein Complexes

Nucleic Acids Research. Feb, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23275566

Sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins must quickly and reliably localize specific target sites on DNA. This search process has been well characterized for monomeric proteins, but it remains poorly understood for systems that require assembly into dimers or oligomers at the target site. We present a single-molecule study of the target-search mechanism of protelomerase TelK, a recombinase-like protein that is only active as a dimer. We show that TelK undergoes 1D diffusion on non-target DNA as a monomer, and it immobilizes upon dimerization even in the absence of a DNA target site. We further show that dimeric TelK condenses non-target DNA, forming a tightly bound nucleoprotein complex. Together with theoretical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations, we present a novel target-search model for TelK, which may be generalizable to other dimer and oligomer-active proteins.

Molecular Recognition Using Corona Phase Complexes Made of Synthetic Polymers Adsorbed on Carbon Nanotubes

Nature Nanotechnology. Dec, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24270641

Understanding molecular recognition is of fundamental importance in applications such as therapeutics, chemical catalysis and sensor design. The most common recognition motifs involve biological macromolecules such as antibodies and aptamers. The key to biorecognition consists of a unique three-dimensional structure formed by a folded and constrained bioheteropolymer that creates a binding pocket, or an interface, able to recognize a specific molecule. Here, we show that synthetic heteropolymers, once constrained onto a single-walled carbon nanotube by chemical adsorption, also form a new corona phase that exhibits highly selective recognition for specific molecules. To prove the generality of this phenomenon, we report three examples of heteropolymer-nanotube recognition complexes for riboflavin, L-thyroxine and oestradiol. In each case, the recognition was predicted using a two-dimensional thermodynamic model of surface interactions in which the dissociation constants can be tuned by perturbing the chemical structure of the heteropolymer. Moreover, these complexes can be used as new types of spatiotemporal sensors based on modulation of the carbon nanotube photoemission in the near-infrared, as we show by tracking riboflavin diffusion in murine macrophages.

Neurotransmitter Detection Using Corona Phase Molecular Recognition on Fluorescent Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Sensors

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24354436

Temporal and spatial changes in neurotransmitter concentrations are central to information processing in neural networks. Therefore, biosensors for neurotransmitters are essential tools for neuroscience. In this work, we applied a new technique, corona phase molecular recognition (CoPhMoRe), to identify adsorbed polymer phases on fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that allow for the selective detection of specific neurotransmitters, including dopamine. We functionalized and suspended SWCNTs with a library of different polymers (n = 30) containing phospholipids, nucleic acids, and amphiphilic polymers to study how neurotransmitters modulate the resulting band gap, near-infrared (nIR) fluorescence of the SWCNT. We identified several corona phases that enable the selective detection of neurotransmitters. Catecholamines such as dopamine increased the fluorescence of specific single-stranded DNA- and RNA-wrapped SWCNTs by 58-80% upon addition of 100 μM dopamine depending on the SWCNT chirality (n,m). In solution, the limit of detection was 11 nM [K(d) = 433 nM for (GT)15 DNA-wrapped SWCNTs]. Mechanistic studies revealed that this turn-on response is due to an increase in fluorescence quantum yield and not covalent modification of the SWCNT or scavenging of reactive oxygen species. When immobilized on a surface, the fluorescence intensity of a single DNA- or RNA-wrapped SWCNT is enhanced by a factor of up to 5.39 ± 1.44, whereby fluorescence signals are reversible. Our findings indicate that certain DNA/RNA coronae act as conformational switches on SWCNTs, which reversibly modulate the SWCNT fluorescence. These findings suggest that our polymer-SWCNT constructs can act as fluorescent neurotransmitter sensors in the tissue-compatible nIR optical window, which may find applications in neuroscience.

Plant Nanobionics Approach to Augment Photosynthesis and Biochemical Sensing

Nature Materials. Apr, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24633343

The interface between plant organelles and non-biological nanostructures has the potential to impart organelles with new and enhanced functions. Here, we show that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) passively transport and irreversibly localize within the lipid envelope of extracted plant chloroplasts, promote over three times higher photosynthetic activity than that of controls, and enhance maximum electron transport rates. The SWNT-chloroplast assemblies also enable higher rates of leaf electron transport in vivo through a mechanism consistent with augmented photoabsorption. Concentrations of reactive oxygen species inside extracted chloroplasts are significantly suppressed by delivering poly(acrylic acid)-nanoceria or SWNT-nanoceria complexes. Moreover, we show that SWNTs enable near-infrared fluorescence monitoring of nitric oxide both ex vivo and in vivo, thus demonstrating that a plant can be augmented to function as a photonic chemical sensor. Nanobionics engineering of plant function may contribute to the development of biomimetic materials for light-harvesting and biochemical detection with regenerative properties and enhanced efficiency.

Experimental Tools to Study Molecular Recognition Within the Nanoparticle Corona

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland). Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25184487

Advancements in optical nanosensor development have enabled the design of sensors using synthetic molecular recognition elements through a recently developed method called Corona Phase Molecular Recognition (CoPhMoRe). The synthetic sensors resulting from these design principles are highly selective for specific analytes, and demonstrate remarkable stability for use under a variety of conditions. An essential element of nanosensor development hinges on the ability to understand the interface between nanoparticles and the associated corona phase surrounding the nanosensor, an environment outside of the range of traditional characterization tools, such as NMR. This review discusses the need for new strategies and instrumentation to study the nanoparticle corona, operating in both in vitro and in vivo environments. Approaches to instrumentation must have the capacity to concurrently monitor nanosensor operation and the molecular changes in the corona phase. A detailed overview of new tools for the understanding of CoPhMoRe mechanisms is provided for future applications.

A Graphene-based Physiometer Array for the Analysis of Single Biological Cells

Scientific Reports. Oct, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25359450

A significant advantage of a graphene biosensor is that it inherently represents a continuum of independent and aligned sensor-units. We demonstrate a nanoscale version of a micro-physiometer - a device that measures cellular metabolic activity from the local acidification rate. Graphene functions as a matrix of independent pH sensors enabling subcellular detection of proton excretion. Raman spectroscopy shows that aqueous protons p-dope graphene - in agreement with established doping trajectories, and that graphene displays two distinct pKa values (2.9 and 14.2), corresponding to dopants physi- and chemisorbing to graphene respectively. The graphene physiometer allows micron spatial resolution and can differentiate immunoglobulin (IgG)-producing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells from non-IgG-producing control cells. Population-based analyses allow mapping of phenotypic diversity, variances in metabolic activity, and cellular adhesion. Finally we show this platform can be extended to the detection of other analytes, e.g. dopamine. This work motivates the application of graphene as a unique biosensor for (sub)cellular interrogation.

A Ratiometric Sensor Using Single Chirality Near-Infrared Fluorescent Carbon Nanotubes: Application to In Vivo Monitoring

Small (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany). Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25981520

Advances in the separation and functionalization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by their electronic type have enabled the development of ratiometric fluorescent SWCNT sensors for the first time. Herein, single chirality SWCNT are independently functionalized to recognize either nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), or no analyte (remaining invariant) to create optical sensor responses from the ratio of distinct emission peaks. This ratiometric approach provides a measure of analyte concentration, invariant to the absolute intensity emitted from the sensors and hence, more stable to external noise and detection geometry. Two distinct ratiometric sensors are demonstrated: one version for H(2)O(2), the other for NO, each using 7,6 emission, and each containing an invariant 6,5 emission wavelength. To functionalize these sensors from SWCNT isolated from the gel separation technique, a method for rapid and efficient coating exchange of single chirality sodium dodecyl sulfate-SWCNT is introduced. As a proof of concept, spatial and temporal patterns of the ratio sensor response to H(2)O(2) and, separately, NO, are monitored in leaves of living plants in real time. This ratiometric optical sensing platform can enable the detection of trace analytes in complex environments such as strongly scattering media and biological tissues.

Comparative Dynamics and Sequence Dependence of DNA and RNA Binding to Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

The Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces. May, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26005509

Noncovalent polymer-single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) conjugates have gained recent interest due to their prevalent use as electrochemical and optical sensors, SWCNT-based therapeutics, and for SWCNT separation. However, little is known about the effects of polymer-SWCNT molecular interactions on functional properties of these conjugates. In this work, we show that SWCNT complexed with related polynucleotide polymers (DNA, RNA) have dramatically different fluorescence stability. Surprisingly, we find a difference of nearly 2500-fold in fluorescence emission between the most fluorescently stable DNA-SWCNT complex, C30 DNA-SWCNT, compared to the least fluorescently stable complex, (AT)7A-(GU)7G DNA-RNA hybrid-SWCNT. We further reveal the existence of three regimes in which SWCNT fluorescence varies nonmonotonically with SWCNT concentration. We utilize molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the conformation and atomic details of SWCNT-corona phase interactions. Our results show that variations in polynucleotide sequence or sugar backbone can lead to large changes in the conformational stability of the polymer SWCNT corona and the SWCNT optical response. Finally, we demonstrate the effect of the coronae on the response of a recently developed dopamine nanosensor, based on (GT)15 DNA- and (GU)15 RNA-SWCNT complexes. Our results clarify several features of the sequence dependence of corona phases produced by polynucleotides adsorbed to single walled carbon nanotubes, and the implications for molecular recognition in such phases.

Mechanism of Immobilized Protein A Binding to Immunoglobulin G on Nanosensor Array Surfaces

Analytical Chemistry. Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26149633

Protein A is often used for the purification and detection of antibodies such as immunoglobulin G (IgG) because of its quadrivalent domains that bind to the Fc region of these macromolecules. However, the kinetics and thermodynamics of the binding to many sensor surfaces have eluded mechanistic description due to complexities associated with multivalent interactions. In this work, we use a near-infrared (nIR) fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube sensor array to obtain the kinetics of IgG binding to protein A, immobilized using a chelated Cu(2+)/His-tag chemistry to hydrogel dispersed sensors. A bivalent binding mechanism is able to describe the concentration dependence of the effective dissociation constant, KD,eff, which varies from 100 pM to 1 μM for IgG concentrations from 1 ng mL(-1) to 100 μg mL(-1), respectively. The mechanism is shown to describe the unusual concentration-dependent scaling demonstrated by other sensor platforms in the literature as well, and a comparison is made between resulting parameters. For comparison, we contrast IgG binding with that of human growth hormone (hGH) to its receptor (hGH-R) which displays an invariant dissociation constant at KD = 9 μM. These results should aid in the use of protein A and other recognition elements in a variety of sensor types.

Protein-targeted Corona Phase Molecular Recognition

Nature Communications. Jan, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26742890

Corona phase molecular recognition (CoPhMoRe) uses a heteropolymer adsorbed onto and templated by a nanoparticle surface to recognize a specific target analyte. This method has not yet been extended to macromolecular analytes, including proteins. Herein we develop a variant of a CoPhMoRe screening procedure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and use it against a panel of human blood proteins, revealing a specific corona phase that recognizes fibrinogen with high selectivity. In response to fibrinogen binding, SWCNT fluorescence decreases by >80% at saturation. Sequential binding of the three fibrinogen nodules is suggested by selective fluorescence quenching by isolated sub-domains and validated by the quenching kinetics. The fibrinogen recognition also occurs in serum environment, at the clinically relevant fibrinogen concentrations in the human blood. These results open new avenues for synthetic, non-biological antibody analogues that recognize biological macromolecules, and hold great promise for medical and clinical applications.

Lipid Exchange Envelope Penetration (LEEP) of Nanoparticles for Plant Engineering: A Universal Localization Mechanism

Nano Letters. Feb, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26760228

Nanoparticles offer clear advantages for both passive and active penetration into biologically important membranes. However, the uptake and localization mechanism of nanoparticles within living plants, plant cells, and organelles has yet to be elucidated.1 Here, we examine the subcellular uptake and kinetic trapping of a wide range of nanoparticles for the first time, using the plant chloroplast as a model system, but validated in vivo in living plants. Confocal visible and near-infrared fluorescent microscopy and single particle tracking of gold-cysteine-AF405 (GNP-Cys-AF405), streptavidin-quantum dot (SA-QD), dextran and poly(acrylic acid) nanoceria, and various polymer-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), including lipid-PEG-SWCNT, chitosan-SWCNT and 30-base (dAdT) sequence of ssDNA (AT)15 wrapped SWCNTs (hereafter referred to as ss(AT)15-SWCNT), are used to demonstrate that particle size and the magnitude, but not the sign, of the zeta potential are key in determining whether a particle is spontaneously and kinetically trapped within the organelle, despite the negative zeta potential of the envelope. We develop a mathematical model of this lipid exchange envelope and penetration (LEEP) mechanism, which agrees well with observations of this size and zeta potential dependence. The theory predicts a critical particle size below which the mechanism fails at all zeta potentials, explaining why nanoparticles are critical for this process. LEEP constitutes a powerful particulate transport and localization mechanism for nanoparticles within the plant system.

Nanoparticle-Templated Molecular Recognition Platforms for Detection of Biological Analytes

Current Protocols in Chemical Biology. Sep, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27622569

Molecular recognition of biological analytes with optical nanosensors provides both spatial and temporal biochemical information. A recently developed sensing platform exploits near-infrared fluorescent single-wall carbon nanotubes combined with electrostatically pinned heteropolymers to yield a synthetic molecular recognition technique that is maximally transparent through biological matter. This molecular recognition technique is known as corona phase molecular recognition (CoPhMoRe). In CoPhMoRe, the specificity of a folded polymer toward an analyte does not arise from a pre-existing polymer-analyte chemical affinity. Rather, specificity is conferred through conformational changes undergone by a polymer that is pinned to the surface of a nanoparticle in the presence of an analyte and the subsequent modifications in fluorescence readout of the nanoparticles. The protocols in this article describe a novel single-molecule microscopy tool (near-infrared fluorescence and total internal reflection fluorescence [nIRF TIRF] hybrid microscope) to visualize the CoPhMoRe recognition process, enabling a better understanding of synthetic molecular recognition. We describe this requisite microscope for simultaneous single-molecule visualization of optical molecular recognition and signal transduction. We elaborate on the general procedures for synthesizing and identifying single-walled carbon nanotube-based sensors that employ CoPhMoRe via two biologically relevant examples of single-molecule recognition for the hormone estradiol and the neurotransmitter dopamine. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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