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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Marlin Halim in JoVE
An Aptamer-based Sensor for Unchelated Gadolinium(III)
Osafanmwen Edogun1, Tracy Y. Chan1, Nghia H. Nguyen1, Anthony Luu1, Marlin Halim1
1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University, East Bay
Other articles by Marlin Halim on PubMed
Phosphorylation State-responsive Lanthanide Peptide Conjugates: a Luminescence Switch Based on Reversible Complex Reorganization
Organic Letters. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16774241
[reaction: see text] A luminogenic probe for peptide dephosphorylation has been developed. It consists of a serine-/tyrosine-containing peptide modified on the N-terminus with a tryptophan residue and a DTPA chelate capable of binding Tb(3+). We propose a mechanistic model for the luminescence enhancement based on the interconversion of monomeric and dimeric lanthanide species, which is affected by the phosphorylation state of the serine or tyrosine residue. The optical switch reports effectively on phosphatase-catalyzed dephosphorylation in vitro.
Cocktails of Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) Complexes: a General Platform for the Design of Ratiometric Optical Probes
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17518468
Fluorescent and luminescent reporters that signal molecular events of interest by modulating the ratio of peaks in their emission profile have advantages over reporters that simply modulate their emission intensity, since ratiometric measurement is concentration-independent and allows them to be effective in complex contexts, such as living cells or sensor microarrays. We herein describe a general platform for the design of ratiometric probes based on a heterometallic Tb(3+)/Eu(3+) bis-lanthanide ensemble, consisting of a mixture, or "cocktail", of otherwise identical heterometalated chelates. The chelate contains an organic photon antenna that sensitizes the Tb(3+)/Eu(3+) luminescence. The contributions of the two metals to the composite luminescence spectrum can be tuned to the same relative scale by adjusting the stoichiometry of the cocktail, allowing subtle changes in their ratio to be accurately measured. Importantly, the ratio responds to chemical and environmental changes experienced by the photon antenna, making the system an ideal platform for the design of chemical and enzymatic probes. As proofs of concept, we describe a ratiometric probe for esterase activity and a polarity-responsive ratiometric sensor.
Transposing Molecular Fluorescent Switches into the Near-IR: Development of Luminogenic Reporter Substrates for Redox Metabolism
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17542585
Imaging Induction of Cytoprotective Enzymes in Intact Human Cells: Coumberone, a Metabolic Reporter for Human AKR1C Enzymes Reveals Activation by Panaxytriol, an Active Component of Red Ginseng
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18826220
We here present an optical method for monitoring the activity of the inducible aldo-keto reductases AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 in living human cells. The induction of these enzymes is regulated by the antioxidant response element (ARE), as demonstrated in recent literature, which in turn is dependent on the transcription factor Nrf2. The activation of ARE leads to the transcription of a coalition of cytoprotective enzymes and thus represents an important target for the development of new therapies in the area of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Through the use of Coumberone, a metabolic fluorogenic probe, and isoform-selective inhibitors, the upregulation of cellular stress markers AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 can be quantitatively measured in the presence of ARE activator compounds, via either a fluorimetric assay or fluorescence microscopy imaging of intact cells. The method has both high sensitivity and broad dynamic range, as demonstrated by induction studies in three cell lines with dramatically different metabolic capabilities (transfected monkey kidney COS-1 cells, human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells, and human liver HepG2 cells). We applied the new method to examine a number of neurotrophic natural products (spirotenuipesine A, spirotenuipesine B, scabronine G-methylester, and panaxytriol), and discovered that panaxytriol, an active component of red ginseng extracts, is a potent ARE inducer. The upregulation of AKR1C enzymes, induced by chemically homogeneous panaxytriol, was partially dependent on PKC and PI3K kinases as demonstrated by the application of selective inhibitors. This cellular mechanism may account for panaxytriol's neurotrophic, neuroprotective, and anticancer properties. The protective effects of ARE inducers against tumorgenesis and neurodegeneration fuel the growing interest in this area of research and the method described here will greatly enable these endeavors.
Recognition and Sensing of Low-epitope Targets Via Ternary Complexes with Oligonucleotides and Synthetic Receptors
Nature Chemistry. Nov, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25343606
Oligonucleotide-based receptors or aptamers can interact with small molecules, but the ability to achieve high-affinity and specificity of these interactions depends strongly on functional groups or epitopes displayed by the binding targets. Some classes of targets are particularly challenging: for example, monosaccharides have scarce functionalities and no aptamers have been reported to recognize, let alone distinguish from each other, glucose and other hexoses. Here we report aptamers that differentiate low-epitope targets such as glucose, fructose or galactose by forming ternary complexes with high-epitope organic receptors for monosaccharides. In a follow-up example, we expand this method to isolate high-affinity oligonucleotides against aromatic amino acids complexed in situ with a nonspecific organometallic receptor. The method is general and enables broad clinical use of aptamers for the detection of small molecules in mix-and-measure assays, as demonstrated by monitoring postprandial waves of phenylalanine in human subjects.
Fluorescent Single-stranded DNA-based Assay for Detecting Unchelated Gadolinium(III) Ions in Aqueous Solution
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Jun, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27071762
The main concern pertaining to the safety of Gadolinium(III)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) is the toxicity caused by the unchelated ion, which may be inadvertently present in the solution due most commonly to excess unreacted starting material or dissociation of the complexes. Detecting the aqueous free ion during the synthesis and preparation of GBCA solutions is therefore instrumental in ensuring the safety of the agents. This paper reports the development of a sensitive fluorogenic sensor for aqueous unchelated Gadolinium(III) (Gd(III)). Our design utilizes single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides with a specific sequence of 44 bases as the targeting moiety. The fluorescence-based assay may be run at ambient pH with very small amounts of samples in 384-well plates. The sensor is able to detect nanomolar concentration of Gd(III), and is relatively unresponsive toward a range of biologically relevant ions and the chelated Gd(III). Although some cross-reactivity with other trivalent lanthanide ions, such as Europium(III) and Terbium(III), is observed, these are not commonly found in biological systems and contrast agents. This convenient and rapid method may be useful in ascertaining a high purity of GBCA solutions. Graphical abstract Fluorescent aptamer-based assay for detecting unchelated Ln(III) ions in aqueous solution.