In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (54)

Articles by Matthew McKenzie in JoVE

Other articles by Matthew McKenzie on PubMed

Functional Respiratory Chain Analyses in Murid Xenomitochondrial Cybrids Expose Coevolutionary Constraints of Cytochrome B and Nuclear Subunits of Complex III

Molecular Biology and Evolution. Jul, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12777531

The large number of extant Muridae species provides the opportunity of investigating functional limits of nuclear/mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) subunit interactions by introducing mitochondrial genomes from progressively more divergent species into Mus musculus domesticus mtDNA-less (rho0) cells. We created a panel of such xenomitochondrial cybrids, using as mitochondrial donors cells from six murid species with divergence from M. m. domesticus estimated at 2 to 12 Myr before present. Species used were Mus spretus, Mus caroli, Mus dunni, Mus pahari, Otomys irroratus, and Rattus norvegicus. Parsimony analysis of partial mtDNA sequences showed agreement with previous molecular phylogenies, with the exception that Otomys did not nest within the murinae as suggested by some recent nuclear gene analyses. Cellular production of lactate, a sensitive indicator of decreased respiratory chain ATP production, correlated with divergence. Functional characterization of the chimeric RC complexes in isolated mitochondria using enzymological analyses demonstrated varying decreases in activities of complexes I, III, and IV, which have subunits encoded in both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Complex III showed a striking decline in electron transfer function in the most divergent xenocybrids, being greatly reduced in the Rattus xenocybrid and virtually absent in the Otomys xenocybrid. This suggests that nuclear subunits interacting with cytochrome b face the greatest constraints in the coevolution of murid RC subunits. We sequenced the cytochrome b gene from the species used to identify potential amino acid substitutions involved in such interactions. The greater sensitivity of complex III to xenocybrid dysfunction may result from the encoding of redox center apoproteins in both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, a unique feature of this RC complex.

Comparison of Log P Values Obtained from CAChe and Other Sources

Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering. Mar, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12680579

Partition coefficients, P, are useful for correlating a variety of properties. The log P values have been calculated for some 120 compounds, including amines, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters using CAChe software. The correlation is excellent for the calculated value and the value obtained from literature sources (r = 0.973; N = 120). The agreement between predicted and reported values is good for alcohols, acids, amines, phenols, hydrocarbons, and a group of miscellaneous compounds. Unfortunately, the actual agreement is not good for esters and ketones, for which reported values tend to be higher and lower, respectively, than the values calculated using CAChe software. The reasons for this discrepancy are considered.

Mitochondrial Disease: Mutations and Mechanisms

Neurochemical Research. Mar, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15038606

The mitochondrial diseases encompass a diverse group of disorders that can exhibit various combinations of clinical features. Defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been associated with these diseases, and studies have been able to assign biochemical defects. Deficiencies in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation appear to be the main pathogenic factors, although recent studies suggest that other mechanisms are involved. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been implicated in a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases, and mitochondrial ROS generation may be an important factor in mitochondrial disease pathogenesis. Altered apoptotic signaling as a consequence of defective mitochondrial function has also been observed in both in vitro and in vivo disease models. Our current understanding of the contribution of these various mechanisms to mitochondrial disease pathophysiology will be discussed.

Production of Homoplasmic Xenomitochondrial Mice

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14745024

The unique features of mtDNA, together with the lack of a wide range of mouse cell mtDNA mutants, have hampered the creation of mtDNA mutant mice. To overcome these barriers mitochondrial defects were created by introducing mitochondria from different mouse species into Mus musculus domesticus (Mm) mtDNA-less (rho(0)) L cells. Introduction of the closely related Mus spretus (Ms) or the more divergent Mus dunni (Md) mitochondria resulted in xenocybrids exhibiting grossly normal respiratory function, but mild metabolic deficiencies, with 2- and 2.5-fold increases in lactate production compared with controls. The transfer of this model from in vitro to in vivo studies was achieved by introducing Ms and Md mitochondria into rhodamine-6G-treated Mm mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The resultant xenocybrid ES cells remained pluripotent, and live-born chimerae were produced from both Ms and Md xenocybrid ES cells. Founder chimeric females (G(0)) were mated with successful germ-line transmission of Ms or Md mtDNA to homoplasmic G(1) offspring. These xenocybrid models represent the first viable transmitochondrial mice with homoplasmic replacement of endogenous mtDNA and confirm the feasibility of producing mitochondrial defects in mice by using a xenomitochondrial approach.

Probing the Nucleation Mechanism for the Binary N-nonane/1-alcohol Series with Atomistic Simulations

The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B. Sep, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16970491

The AVUS-HR approach, which combines histogram reweighting with aggregation-volume-bias Monte Carlo nucleation simulations using self-adaptive umbrella sampling, was extended to multicomponent nucleation systems. It was applied to investigate the homogeneous vapor-liquid nucleation for the binary n-nonane/1-alcohol series, including the n-nonane/methanol, n-nonane/ethanol, n-nonane/1-propanol, n-nonane/1-butanol, n-nonane/1-hexanol, and n-nonane/1-decanol systems. The simple transferable potentials for phase equilibria-united atom force field was used in this investigation. It was found that the nucleation free energy (NFE) contour plots obtained for these binary n-nonane/1-alcohol nucleation systems exhibit rather interesting mechanistic features, some of which are distinct from other binary systems previously studied (such as water/ethanol and water/n-nonane). In addition, the NFE profiles show a subtle evolution with the increase in alcohol chain length, from a somewhat two-pathway type of shape as observed for the n-nonane/methanol system to a more normal single-pathway one for systems involving longer alcohols (1-hexanol and 1-decanol). In contrast, the NFE maps obtained for the other three binary systems involving those medium-length alcohols display the most striking feature with the saddle point stretched almost all the way from the n-nonane-enriched to the alcohol-enriched domain, implying that multiple pathways coexist on the nucleation map. These free energy profiles were shown to be consistent with the non-ideal nucleation behavior observed experimentally for this binary series, namely, a rather reluctant conucleation of the alcohols with n-nonane. In particular, this non-ideal behavior becomes more severe with a decrease in the alcohol chain length. Also, analysis of the compositions of the critical nuclei indicates a reluctant mixing behavior between these two species, i.e., depletion of the alcohol at low alcohol activity or depletion of n-nonane at low n-nonane activity, in agreement with the experimental interpretations. Furthermore, a microscopic inhomogeneity is present inside these critical nuclei, that is, alcohols aggregate via hydrogen bonds forming alcohol-enriched domains.

Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Supercomplexes Are Destabilized in Barth Syndrome Patients

Journal of Molecular Biology. Aug, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16857210

Mutations in the human TAZ gene are associated with Barth Syndrome, an often fatal X-linked disorder that presents with cardiomyopathy and neutropenia. The TAZ gene encodes Tafazzin, a putative phospholipid acyltranferase that is involved in the remodeling of cardiolipin, a phospholipid unique to the inner mitochondrial membrane. It has been shown that the disruption of the Tafazzin gene in yeast (Taz1) affects the assembly and stability of respiratory chain Complex IV and its supercomplex forms. However, the implications of these results for Barth Syndrome are restricted due to the additional presence of Complex I in humans that forms a supercomplex with Complexes III and IV. Here, we investigated the effects of Tafazzin, and hence cardiolipin deficiency in lymphoblasts from patients with Barth Syndrome, using blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Digitonin extraction revealed a more labile Complex I/III(2)/IV supercomplex in mitochondria from Barth Syndrome cells, with Complex IV dissociating more readily from the supercomplex. The interaction between Complexes I and III was also less stable, with decreased levels of the Complex I/III(2) supercomplex. Reduction of Complex I holoenzyme levels was observed also in the Barth Syndrome patients, with a corresponding decrease in steady-state subunit levels. We propose that the loss of mature cardiolipin species in Barth Syndrome results in unstable respiratory chain supercomplexes, thereby affecting Complex I biogenesis, respiratory activities and subsequent pathology.

Unravelling the Peculiar Nucleation Mechanisms for Non-ideal Binary Mixtures with Atomistic Simulations

The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B. Mar, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16494406

Recent experiments reveal unusual nucleation behavior for seemingly simple mixtures that cannot be described by the classical theory. Molecular simulations using a combination of aggregation-volume-bias Monte Carlo, umbrella sampling, and histogram reweighting methods were carried out to study the nucleation events involved in the water/ethanol, water/n-nonane, and n-nonane/ethanol mixtures. These simulations reproduced their different nonideal behaviors observed by the experiments. Furthermore, the finding of their strikingly distinct mechanisms, as implied from the calculated free-energy maps, challenges the current theoretical description of this phenomenon.

Mitochondrial ND5 Gene Variation Associated with Encephalomyopathy and Mitochondrial ATP Consumption

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17940288

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and lactic acidosis with strokelike episodes (MELAS) is a severe young onset stroke disorder without effective treatment. We have identified a MELAS patient harboring a 13528A-->G mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation in the Complex I ND5 gene. This mutation was homoplasmic in mtDNA from patient muscle and nearly homoplasmic (99.9%) in blood. Fibroblasts from the patient exhibited decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim) and increased lactate production, consistent with impaired mitochondrial function. Transfer of patient mtDNA to a new nuclear background using transmitochondrial cybrid fusions confirmed the pathogenicity of the 13528A-->G mutation; Complex I-linked respiration and Deltapsim were both significantly reduced in patient mtDNA cybrids compared with controls. Inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocase or the F1F0-ATPase with bongkrekic acid or oligomycin caused a loss of potential in patient mtDNA cybrid mitochondria, indicating a requirement for glycolytically generated ATP to maintain Deltapsim. This was confirmed by inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose, which caused depletion of ATP and mitochondrial depolarization in patient mtDNA cybrids. These data suggest that in response to impaired respiration due to the mtDNA mutation, mitochondria consume ATP to maintain Deltapsim, representing a potential pathophysiological mechanism in human mitochondrial disease.

Analysis of the Assembly Profiles for Mitochondrial- and Nuclear-DNA-encoded Subunits into Complex I

Molecular and Cellular Biology. Jun, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17438127

Complex I of the respiratory chain is composed of at least 45 subunits that assemble together at the mitochondrial inner membrane. Defects in human complex I result in energy generation disorders and are also implicated in Parkinson's disease and altered apoptotic signaling. The assembly of this complex is poorly understood and is complicated by its large size and its regulation by two genomes, with seven subunits encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the remainder encoded by nuclear genes. Here we analyzed the assembly of a number of mtDNA- and nuclear-gene-encoded subunits into complex I. We found that mtDNA-encoded subunits first assemble into intermediate complexes and require significant chase times for their integration into the holoenzyme. In contrast, a set of newly imported nuclear-gene-encoded subunits integrate with preexisting complex I subunits to form intermediates and/or the fully assembly holoenzyme. One of the intermediate complexes represents a subassembly associated with the chaperone B17.2L. By using isolated patient mitochondria, we show that this subassembly is a productive intermediate in complex I assembly since import of the missing subunit restores complex I assembly. Our studies point to a mechanism of complex I biogenesis involving two complementary processes, (i) synthesis of mtDNA-encoded subunits to seed de novo assembly and (ii) exchange of preexisting subunits with newly imported ones to maintain complex I homeostasis. Subunit exchange may also act as an efficient mechanism to prevent the accumulation of oxidatively damaged subunits that would otherwise be detrimental to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and have the potential to cause disease.

Analysis of Mitochondrial Subunit Assembly into Respiratory Chain Complexes Using Blue Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

Analytical Biochemistry. May, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17391635

The mitochondrial respiratory chain consists of multi-subunit protein complexes embedded in the inner membrane. Although the majority of subunits are encoded by nuclear genes and are imported into mitochondria, 13 subunits in humans are encoded by mitochondrial DNA. The coordinated assembly of subunits encoded from two genomes is a poorly understood process, with assembly pathway defects being a major determinant in mitochondrial disease. In this study, we monitored the assembly of human respiratory complexes using radiolabeled, mitochondrially encoded subunits in conjunction with Blue Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The efficiency of assembly was found to differ markedly between complexes, and intermediate complexes containing newly synthesized mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits could be observed for complexes I, III, and IV. In particular, we detected human cytochrome b as a monomer and as a component of a novel approximately 120 kDa intermediate complex at early chase times before being totally assembled into mature complex III. Furthermore, we show that this approach is highly suited for the rapid detection of respiratory complex assembly defects in fibroblasts from patients with mitochondrial disease and, thus, has potential diagnostic applications.

Mutation of C20orf7 Disrupts Complex I Assembly and Causes Lethal Neonatal Mitochondrial Disease

American Journal of Human Genetics. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18940309

Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first and largest multimeric complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Human complex I comprises seven subunits encoded by mitochondrial DNA and 38 nuclear-encoded subunits that are assembled together in a process that is only partially understood. To date, mutations causing complex I deficiency have been described in all 14 core subunits, five supernumerary subunits, and four assembly factors. We describe complex I deficiency caused by mutation of the putative complex I assembly factor C20orf7. A candidate region for a lethal neonatal form of complex I deficiency was identified by homozygosity mapping of an Egyptian family with one affected child and two affected pregnancies predicted by enzyme-based prenatal diagnosis. The region was confirmed by microcell-mediated chromosome transfer, and 11 candidate genes encoding potential mitochondrial proteins were sequenced. A homozygous missense mutation in C20orf7 segregated with disease in the family. We show that C20orf7 is peripherally associated with the matrix face of the mitochondrial inner membrane and that silencing its expression with RNAi decreases complex I activity. C20orf7 patient fibroblasts showed an almost complete absence of complex I holoenzyme and were defective at an early stage of complex I assembly, but in a manner distinct from the assembly defects caused by mutations in the assembly factor NDUFAF1. Our results indicate that C20orf7 is crucial in the assembly of complex I and that mutations in C20orf7 cause mitochondrial disease.

Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Involved in Outer-membrane Protein Biogenesis: Implications for Barth Syndrome

Current Biology : CB. Dec, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19962311

The biogenesis of mitochondria requires the import of a large number of proteins from the cytosol [1, 2]. Although numerous studies have defined the proteinaceous machineries that mediate mitochondrial protein sorting, little is known about the role of lipids in mitochondrial protein import. Cardiolipin, the signature phospholipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane [3-5], affects the stability of many inner-membrane protein complexes [6-12]. Perturbation of cardiolipin metabolism leads to the X-linked cardioskeletal myopathy Barth syndrome [13-18]. We report that cardiolipin affects the preprotein translocases of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Cardiolipin mutants genetically interact with mutants of outer-membrane translocases. Mitochondria from cardiolipin yeast mutants, as well as Barth syndrome patients, are impaired in the biogenesis of outer-membrane proteins. Our findings reveal a new role for cardiolipin in protein sorting at the mitochondrial outer membrane and bear implications for the pathogenesis of Barth syndrome.

Assembly of Nuclear DNA-encoded Subunits into Mitochondrial Complex IV, and Their Preferential Integration into Supercomplex Forms in Patient Mitochondria

The FEBS Journal. Nov, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19843159

Complex IV is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In humans, biogenesis of complex IV involves the coordinated assembly of 13 subunits encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The early stages of complex IV assembly involving mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits CO1 and CO2 have been well studied. However, the latter stages, during which many of the nuclear DNA-encoded subunits are incorporated, are less well understood. Using in vitro import and assembly assays, we found that subunits Cox6a, Cox6b and Cox7a assembled into pre-existing complex IV, while Cox4-1 and Cox6c subunits assembled into subcomplexes that may represent rate-limiting intermediates. We also found that Cox6a and Cox7a are incorporated into a novel intermediate complex of approximately 250 kDa, and that transition of subunits from this complex to the mature holoenzyme had stalled in the mitochondria of patients with isolated complex IV deficiency. A number of complex IV subunits were also found to integrate into supercomplexes containing combinations of complex I, dimeric complex III and complex IV. Subunit assembly into these supercomplexes was also observed in mitochondria of patients in whom monomeric complex IV was selectively reduced. We conclude that newly imported nuclear DNA-encoded subunits can integrate into the complex IV holoenzyme and supercomplex forms by associating with pre-existing subunits and intermediate assembly complexes.

Chapter 18 Analysis of Respiratory Chain Complex Assembly with Radiolabeled Nuclear- and Mitochondrial-encoded Subunits

Methods in Enzymology. 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19348897

The mitochondrial respiratory chain is composed of individual complexes that range widely in terms of size and subunit composition. For example, whereas complex II is approximately 260 kDa and is composed of 4 subunits, complex I is almost 1 MDa and contains 45 different subunits. Furthermore, complexes I, III, IV, and V harbor additional complexity, because their subunits are encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Subunits that are encoded by nuclear genes must be imported into mitochondria before undergoing processing, folding, and assembly with other subunits that are synthesized within the organelle. This process requires the coordinated action of assembly factors with the integration of subunits into intermediate assembly complexes. Recent studies have used various techniques to analyze subunit assembly to gain information into the biogenesis of these respiratory chain complexes and to understand how defects in assembly lead to disease. Here we describe methods to monitor the assembly of newly synthesized subunits encoded by mitochondrial DNA from cultured mammalian cells, as well as the import and assembly of individual subunits encoded by nuclear DNA.

Assembly of Mitochondrial Complex I and Defects in Disease

Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Jan, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 18501715

Isolated complex I deficiency is the most common cause of respiratory chain dysfunction. Defects in human complex I result in energy generation disorders and they are also implicated in neurodegenerative disease and altered apoptotic signaling. Complex I dysfunction often occurs as a result of its impaired assembly. The assembly process of complex I is poorly understood, complicated by the fact that in mammals, it is composed of 45 different subunits and is regulated by both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. However, in recent years we have gained new insights into complex I biogenesis and a number of assembly factors involved in this process have also been identified. In most cases, these factors have been discovered through their gene mutations that lead to specific complex I defects and result in mitochondrial disease. Here we review how complex I is assembled and the factors required to mediate this process.

Mutation of the Mitochondrial Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase Gene, YARS2, Causes Myopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Sideroblastic Anemia--MLASA Syndrome

American Journal of Human Genetics. Jul, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20598274

Mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders are a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the underlying genetic defect is often unknown. We have identified a pathogenic mutation (c.156C>G [p.F52L]) in YARS2, located at chromosome 12p11.21, by using genome-wide SNP-based homozygosity analysis of a family with affected members displaying myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA). We subsequently identified the same mutation in another unrelated MLASA patient. The YARS2 gene product, mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (YARS2), was present at lower levels in skeletal muscle whereas fibroblasts were relatively normal. Complex I, III, and IV were dysfunctional as indicated by enzyme analysis, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. A mitochondrial protein-synthesis assay showed reduced levels of respiratory chain subunits in myotubes generated from patient cell lines. A tRNA aminoacylation assay revealed that mutant YARS2 was still active; however, enzyme kinetics were abnormal compared to the wild-type protein. We propose that the reduced aminoacylation activity of mutant YARS2 enzyme leads to decreased mitochondrial protein synthesis, resulting in mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction. MLASA has previously been associated with PUS1 mutations; hence, the YARS2 mutation reported here is an alternative cause of MLASA.

Assembly Factors of Human Mitochondrial Complex I and Their Defects in Disease

IUBMB Life. Jul, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20552642

NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a large, multimeric enzyme complex involved in the generation of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. Complex I is comprised of 45 subunits which must be assembled together in a coordinated process to form the mature holoenzyme. In recent years, much progress has been made into understanding how complex I is assembled and the work provides potential insights into the biogenesis of other multisubunit membrane complexes. For complex I assembly to proceed effectively, a group of proteins termed "assembly factors" are required. A number of these assembly factors have now been identified and characterized; however, their exact roles in complex I biogenesis are not yet fully understood. This review summarizes the current model of human complex I assembly and the roles played by different assembly factors at early, mid, and late assembly stages. Defects in assembly factors which disrupt complex I assembly and contribute to human disease pathogenesis will also be discussed.

Timely Attention to Staffing

Nursing. Dec, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 22195306

Mutations in the Gene Encoding C8orf38 Block Complex I Assembly by Inhibiting Production of the Mitochondria-encoded Subunit ND1

Journal of Molecular Biology. Dec, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 22019594

The assembly of complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a complicated process, requiring the integration of 45 subunits encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNAs into a structure of approximately 1 MDa. A number of "assembly factors" that aid complex I biogenesis have recently been described, including C8orf38. This protein was identified as an assembly factor by its evolutionary conservation in organisms containing complex I and by a C8orf38 mutation in a patient presenting with Leigh syndrome and isolated complex I deficiency. In this report, we have undertaken the characterization of C8orf38 and its role in complex I assembly. Analysis of mitochondria from fibroblasts of a patient harboring a C8orf38 mutation showed almost undetectable levels of steady-state complex I and defective biogenesis of the mtDNA-encoded subunit ND1. Complementation with wild-type C8orf38 restored the levels of both ND1 and complex I, confirming the C8orf38 mutation as the cause of the complex I defect in the patient. In the absence of ND1 in patient cells, early- and mid-stage intermediate complexes were still formed; however, assembly of late-stage intermediates was impaired, indicating a convergence point in the assembly process. While C8orf38 appears to behave at a step in complex I biogenesis similar to that of the assembly factor C20orf7, complementation studies showed that both proteins are required for ND1 synthesis/stabilization. We conclude that C8orf38 is a crucial factor required for the translation and/or integration of ND1 into an early-stage assembly intermediate and that mutation of C8orf38 disrupts the initial stages of complex I biogenesis.

Mutations in MTFMT Underlie a Human Disorder of Formylation Causing Impaired Mitochondrial Translation

Cell Metabolism. Sep, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21907147

The metazoan mitochondrial translation machinery is unusual in having a single tRNA(Met) that fulfills the dual role of the initiator and elongator tRNA(Met). A portion of the Met-tRNA(Met) pool is formylated by mitochondrial methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase (MTFMT) to generate N-formylmethionine-tRNA(Met) (fMet-tRNA(met)), which is used for translation initiation; however, the requirement of formylation for initiation in human mitochondria is still under debate. Using targeted sequencing of the mtDNA and nuclear exons encoding the mitochondrial proteome (MitoExome), we identified compound heterozygous mutations in MTFMT in two unrelated children presenting with Leigh syndrome and combined OXPHOS deficiency. Patient fibroblasts exhibit severe defects in mitochondrial translation that can be rescued by exogenous expression of MTFMT. Furthermore, patient fibroblasts have dramatically reduced fMet-tRNA(Met) levels and an abnormal formylation profile of mitochondrially translated COX1. Our findings demonstrate that MTFMT is critical for efficient human mitochondrial translation and reveal a human disorder of Met-tRNA(Met) formylation.

Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number is Regulated in a Tissue Specific Manner by DNA Methylation of the Nuclear-encoded DNA Polymerase Gamma A

Nucleic Acids Research. Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22941637

DNA methylation is an essential mechanism controlling gene expression during differentiation and development. We investigated the epigenetic regulation of the nuclear-encoded, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase γ catalytic subunit (PolgA) by examining the methylation status of a CpG island within exon 2 of PolgA. Bisulphite sequencing identified low methylation levels (<10%) within exon 2 of mouse oocytes, blastocysts and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), while somatic tissues contained significantly higher levels (>40%). In contrast, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and somatic nuclear transfer ESCs were hypermethylated (>20%), indicating abnormal epigenetic reprogramming. Real time PCR analysis of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) immunoprecipitated DNA suggests active DNA methylation and demethylation within exon 2 of PolgA. Moreover, neural differentiation of ESCs promoted de novo methylation and demethylation at the exon 2 locus. Regression analysis demonstrates that cell-specific PolgA expression levels were negatively correlated with DNA methylation within exon 2 and mtDNA copy number. Finally, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) against RNA polymerase II (RNApII) phosphorylated on serine 2, we show increased DNA methylation levels are associated with reduced RNApII transcriptional elongation. This is the first study linking nuclear DNA epigenetic regulation with mtDNA regulation during differentiation and cell specialization.

Proteomic and Metabolomic Analyses of Mitochondrial Complex I-deficient Mouse Model Generated by Spontaneous B2 Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) Insertion into NADH Dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S Protein 4 (Ndufs4) Gene

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22535952

Eukaryotic cells generate energy in the form of ATP, through a network of mitochondrial complexes and electron carriers known as the oxidative phosphorylation system. In mammals, mitochondrial complex I (CI) is the largest component of this system, comprising 45 different subunits encoded by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Humans diagnosed with mutations in the gene NDUFS4, encoding a nuclear DNA-encoded subunit of CI (NADH dehydrogenase ubiquinone Fe-S protein 4), typically suffer from Leigh syndrome, a neurodegenerative disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. Mitochondria from NDUFS4 patients usually lack detectable NDUFS4 protein and show a CI stability/assembly defect. Here, we describe a recessive mouse phenotype caused by the insertion of a transposable element into Ndufs4, identified by a novel combined linkage and expression analysis. Designated Ndufs4(fky), the mutation leads to aberrant transcript splicing and absence of NDUFS4 protein in all tissues tested of homozygous mice. Physical and behavioral symptoms displayed by Ndufs4(fky/fky) mice include temporary fur loss, growth retardation, unsteady gait, and abnormal body posture when suspended by the tail. Analysis of CI in Ndufs4(fky/fky) mice using blue native PAGE revealed the presence of a faster migrating crippled complex. This crippled CI was shown to lack subunits of the "N assembly module", which contains the NADH binding site, but contained two assembly factors not present in intact CI. Metabolomic analysis of the blood by tandem mass spectrometry showed increased hydroxyacylcarnitine species, implying that the CI defect leads to an imbalanced NADH/NAD(+) ratio that inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation.

Next-generation Sequencing in Molecular Diagnosis: NUBPL Mutations Highlight the Challenges of Variant Detection and Interpretation

Human Mutation. Feb, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22072591

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is transitioning from being a research tool to being used in routine genetic diagnostics, where a major challenge is distinguishing which of many sequence variants in an individual are truly pathogenic. We describe some limitations of in silico analyses of NGS data that emphasize the need for experimental confirmation. Using NGS, we recently identified an apparently homozygous missense mutation in NUBPL in a patient with mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Causality was established via lentiviral correction studies with wild-type NUBPL cDNA. NGS data, however, provided an incomplete understanding of the genetic abnormality. We show that the maternal allele carries an unbalanced inversion, while the paternal allele carries a branch-site mutation in addition to the missense mutation. We demonstrate that the branch-site mutation, which is present in approximately one of 120 control chromosomes, likely contributes to pathogenicity and may be one of the most common autosomal mutations causing mitochondrial dysfunction. Had these analyses not been performed following NGS, the original missense mutation may be incorrectly annotated as pathogenic and a potentially common pathogenic variant not detected. It is important that locus-specific databases contain accurate information on pathogenic variation. NGS data, therefore, require rigorous experimental follow-up to confirm mutation pathogenicity.

Understanding Mitochondrial Complex I Assembly in Health and Disease

Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Jun, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21924235

Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the largest multimeric enzyme complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is responsible for electron transport and the generation of a proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane to drive ATP production. Eukaryotic complex I consists of 14 conserved subunits, which are homologous to the bacterial subunits, and more than 26 accessory subunits. In mammals, complex I consists of 45 subunits, which must be assembled correctly to form the properly functioning mature complex. Complex I dysfunction is the most common oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) disorder in humans and defects in the complex I assembly process are often observed. This assembly process has been difficult to characterize because of its large size, the lack of a high resolution structure for complex I, and its dual control by nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. However, in recent years, some of the atomic structure of the complex has been resolved and new insights into complex I assembly have been generated. Furthermore, a number of proteins have been identified as assembly factors for complex I biogenesis and many patients carrying mutations in genes associated with complex I deficiency and mitochondrial diseases have been discovered. Here, we review the current knowledge of the eukaryotic complex I assembly process and new insights from the identification of novel assembly factors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biogenesis/Assembly of Respiratory Enzyme Complexes.

Fluid Balance and Cardiac Function in Septic Shock As Predictors of Hospital Mortality

Critical Care (London, England). Oct, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24138869

Septic shock is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Unfortunately, the optimal fluid management of septic shock is unknown and currently is empirical.

Clostridium Difficile Infection: a Multicenter Study of Epidemiology and Outcomes in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

Critical Care Medicine. Aug, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23863229

Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of hospital-associated infection in the United States. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of C. difficile infection among mechanically ventilated patients within the ICUs of three academic hospitals and secondarily describe the influence of C. difficile infection on the outcomes of these patients.

Modulation of Ceramide-induced Cell Death and Superoxide Production by Mitochondrial DNA-encoded Respiratory Chain Defects in Rattus Xenocybrid Mouse Cells

Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23567871

Mitochondria play an integral role in cell death signaling, yet how mitochondrial defects disrupt this important function is not well understood. We have used a mouse L-cell fibroblast model harboring Rattus norvegicus mtDNA (Rn xenocybrids) to examine the effects of multiple oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell death signaling. Blue native-PAGE analyses of Rn xenocybrids revealed defects in OXPHOS complex biogenesis with reduced steady-state levels of complexes I, III and IV. Isolated Rn xenocybrid mitochondria exhibited deficiencies in complex II+III and III activities, with CIII-stimulated ROS generation 66% higher than in control mitochondria. Rn xenocybrid cells were resistant to staurosporine-induced cell death, but exhibited a four-fold increase in sensitivity to ceramide-induced cell death that was caspase-3 independent and did not induce chromosomal DNA degradation. Furthermore, ceramide directly inhibited Rn xenocybrid complex II+III activity by 97%, although this inhibition could be completely abolished by exogenous decylubiquinone. Ceramide also induced a further increase in ROS output from Rn xenocybrid complex III by 42%. These results suggest that the interaction of ceramide with OXPHOS complex III is significantly enhanced by the presence of the xenotypic Rattus cytochrome b in complex III, likely due to the increased affinity for ceramide at the ubiquinone binding site. We propose a novel mechanism of altered mitochondrial cell death signaling due to mtDNA mutations whereby ceramide directly induces OXPHOS complex ROS generation to initiate cell death pathways.

Mitochondrial DNA Haplotypes Define Gene Expression Patterns in Pluripotent and Differentiating Embryonic Stem Cells

Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Apr, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23307500

Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes are associated with various phenotypes, such as altered susceptibility to disease, environmental adaptations, and aging. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial DNA is essential for cell differentiation and the cell phenotype. However, the effects of different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes on differentiation and development remain to be determined. Using embryonic stem cell lines possessing the same Mus musculus chromosomes but harboring one of Mus musculus, Mus spretus, or Mus terricolor mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, we have determined the effects of different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes on chromosomal gene expression, differentiation, and mitochondrial metabolism. In undifferentiated and differentiating embryonic stem cells, we observed mitochondrial DNA haplotype-specific expression of genes involved in pluripotency, differentiation, mitochondrial energy metabolism, and DNA methylation. These mitochondrial DNA haplotypes also influenced the potential of embryonic stem cells to produce spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes. The differences in gene expression patterns and cardiomyocyte production were independent of ATP content, oxygen consumption, and respiratory capacity, which until now have been considered to be the primary roles of mitochondrial DNA. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells harboring the different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in a 3D environment significantly increased chromosomal gene expression for all haplotypes during differentiation. However, haplotype-specific differences in gene expression patterns were maintained in this environment. Taken together, these results provide significant insight into the phenotypic consequences of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and demonstrate their influence on differentiation and development. We propose that mitochondrial DNA haplotypes play a pivotal role in the process of differentiation and mediate the fate of the cell.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Novel Form of Autosomal Recessive Ataxia

Mitochondrion. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23178371

Defects in the recognition and/or repair of damage to DNA are responsible for a sub-group of autosomal recessive ataxias. Included in this group is a novel form of ataxia with oculomotor apraxia characterised by sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, a defect in p53 stabilisation, oxidative stress and resistance to apoptosis. We provide evidence here that the defect in this patient's cells is at the level of the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial membrane potential was markedly reduced in cells from the patient and ROS levels were elevated. This was accompanied by lipid peroxidation of mitochondrial proteins involved in electron transport and RNA synthesis. However, no gross changes or alteration in composition or activity of mitochondrial electron transport complexes was evident. Sequencing of mitochondrial DNA revealed a mutation, I349T, in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. These results describe a patient with an apparently novel form of AOA characterised by a defect at the level of the mitochondrion.

The Effects of Nuclear Reprogramming on Mitochondrial DNA Replication

Stem Cell Reviews. Feb, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 21994000

Undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) possess low numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which encodes key subunits associated with the generation of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). As ESCs differentiate, mtDNA copy number is regulated by the nuclear-encoded mtDNA replication factors, which initiate a major replication event on Day 6 of differentiation. Here, we examined mtDNA replication events in somatic cells reprogrammed to pluripotency, namely somatic cell-ES (SC-ES), somatic cell nuclear transfer ES (NT-ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, all at low-passage. MtDNA copy number in undifferentiated iPS cells was similar to ESCs whilst SC-ES and NT-ES cells had significantly increased levels, which correlated positively and negatively with Nanog and Sox2 expression, respectively. During pluripotency and differentiation, the expression of the mtDNA-specific replication factors, PolgA and Peo1, were differentially expressed in iPS and SC-ES cells when compared to ESCs. Throughout differentiation, reprogrammed somatic cells were unable to accumulate mtDNA copy number, characteristic of ESCs, especially on Day 6. In addition, iPS and SC-ES cells were also unable to regulate ATP content in a manner similar to differentiating ESCs prior to Day 14. The treatment of reprogrammed somatic cells with an inhibitor of de novo DNA methylation, 5-Azacytidine, prior to differentiation enabled iPS cells, but not SC-ES and NT-ES cells, to accumulate mtDNA copies per cell in a manner similar to ESCs. These data demonstrate that the reprogramming process disrupts the regulation of mtDNA replication during pluripotency but this can be re-established through the use of epigenetic modifiers.

Capture of Somatic MtDNA Point Mutations with Severe Effects on Oxidative Phosphorylation in Synaptosome Cybrid Clones from Human Brain

Human Mutation. Dec, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25219341

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is replicated throughout life in postmitotic cells, resulting in higher levels of somatic mutation than in nuclear genes. However, controversy remains as to the importance of low-level mtDNA somatic mutants in cancerous and normal human tissues. To capture somatic mtDNA mutations for functional analysis, we generated synaptosome cybrids from synaptic endings isolated from fresh hippocampus and cortex brain biopsies. We analyzed the whole mtDNA genome from 120 cybrid clones derived from four individual donors by chemical cleavage of mismatch and Sanger sequencing, scanning around two million base pairs. Seventeen different somatic point mutations were identified, including eight coding region mutations, four of which result in frameshifts. Examination of one cybrid clone with a novel m.2949_2953delCTATT mutation in MT-RNR2 (which encodes mitochondrial 16S rRNA) revealed a severe disruption of mtDNA-encoded protein translation. We also performed functional studies on a homoplasmic nonsense mutation in MT-ND1, previously reported in oncocytomas, and show that both ATP generation and the stability of oxidative phosphorylation complex I are disrupted. As the mtDNA remains locked against direct genetic manipulation, we demonstrate that the synaptosome cybrid approach can capture biologically relevant mtDNA mutants in vitro to study effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain function.

Critical Review of Bronchial Thermoplasty: Where Should It Fit into Asthma Therapy?

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. Nov, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25189294

Bronchial thermoplasty is a device-based therapy for treatment of severe refractory asthma that uses radiofrequency energy to reduce airway smooth muscle and decrease bronchoconstriction. BT improves quality of life and decreases the rate of severe exacerbations with no known major long-term complications. The effectiveness of bronchial thermoplasty persists at least 5 years after the treatment is completed. Further investigation is needed to better define the specific subpopulation of patients with severe asthma who would best benefit from this treatment.

Effects of Empiric Antifungal Therapy for Septic Shock on Time to Appropriate Therapy for Candida Infection: a Pilot Study

Clinical Therapeutics. Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25064625

Inappropriate initial therapy for Candida-related septic shock is common and associated with a high mortality rate. This before-after pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using empiric therapy for reducing the time to appropriate antifungal therapy in patients with Candida-related septic shock.

Mitochondrial Research in Australia: a Major Player in Worldwide Trends

Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Apr, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24468066

A Founder Mutation in PET100 Causes Isolated Complex IV Deficiency in Lebanese Individuals with Leigh Syndrome

American Journal of Human Genetics. Feb, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24462369

Leigh syndrome (LS) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic bilateral lesions, typically in the brainstem and basal ganglia. It usually presents in infancy and is genetically heterogeneous, but most individuals with mitochondrial complex IV (or cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency have mutations in the biogenesis factor SURF1. We studied eight complex IV-deficient LS individuals from six families of Lebanese origin. They differed from individuals with SURF1 mutations in having seizures as a prominent feature. Complementation analysis suggested they had mutation(s) in the same gene but targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of 1,034 genes encoding known mitochondrial proteins failed to identify a likely candidate. Linkage and haplotype analyses mapped the location of the gene to chromosome 19 and targeted MPS of the linkage region identified a homozygous c.3G>C (p.Met1?) mutation in C19orf79. Abolishing the initiation codon could potentially still allow initiation at a downstream methionine residue but we showed that this would not result in a functional protein. We confirmed that mutation of this gene was causative by lentiviral-mediated phenotypic correction. C19orf79 was recently renamed PET100 and predicted to encode a complex IV biogenesis factor. We showed that it is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane and forms a ∼300 kDa subcomplex with complex IV subunits. Previous proteomic analyses of mitochondria had overlooked PET100 because its small size was below the cutoff for annotating bona fide proteins. The mutation was estimated to have arisen at least 520 years ago, explaining how the families could have different religions and different geographic origins within Lebanon.

The Identification of Mitochondrial DNA Variants in Glioblastoma Multiforme

Acta Neuropathologica Communications. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24383468

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes key proteins of the electron transfer chain (ETC), which produces ATP through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and is essential for cells to perform specialised functions. Tumor-initiating cells use aerobic glycolysis, a combination of glycolysis and low levels of OXPHOS, to promote rapid cell proliferation and tumor growth. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressively malignant brain tumor and mitochondria have been proposed to play a vital role in GBM tumorigenesis.

Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Induced Pluripotent and Embryonic Stem Cells

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26621601

The mitochondrial genome has a major role to play in establishing and maintaining pluripotency. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy is strictly regulated during differentiation. Undifferentiated, pluripotent cells possess fewer than 300 copies of mtDNA, which establishes the mtDNA set point and promotes cell proliferation and, as a result, these cells rely on glycolysis with some support from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for the generation of ATP. The mtDNA set point provides the starting point from which cells increase their mtDNA copy number as they differentiate into mature functional cells. Dependent on cell types, mtDNA copy number ranges from ~10 copies in sperm to several thousand in cardiomyocytes. Consequently, differentiating cell types can acquire the appropriate numbers of mtDNA copy to meet their specific requirements for ATP generated through OXPHOS. However, as reprogrammed somatic cells do not always achieve this, it is essential to analyze them for their OXPHOS potential and ability to regulate mtDNA copy number. Here, we describe how to assess mtDNA copy number in pluripotent and differentiating cells using real-time PCR protocols; assess expression of the mtDNA specific replication factors through real-time RT-PCR; identify mtDNA variants in embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells; determine DNA methylation patterns of the mtDNA-specific replication factors; and assess mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity.

Hydrogel-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). Nov, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26580588

Hydrogels are three-dimensional materials that can withstand a great amount of water incorporation while maintaining integrity. This allows hydrogels to be very unique biomedical materials, especially for drug delivery. Much effort has been made to incorporate hydrophilic molecules in hydrogels in the field of drug delivery, while loading of hydrophobic drugs has not been vastly studied. However, in recent years, research has also been conducted on incorporating hydrophobic molecules within hydrogel matrices for achieving a steady release of drugs to treat various ailments. Here, we summarize the types of hydrogels used as drug delivery vehicles, various methods to incorporate hydrophobic molecules in hydrogel matrices, and the potential therapeutic applications of hydrogels in cancer.

Anti-cancer Analogues ME-143 and ME-344 Exert Toxicity by Directly Inhibiting Mitochondrial NADH: Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I)

American Journal of Cancer Research. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25973307

Isoflavonoids have been shown to inhibit tumor proliferation and metastasis by activating cell death pathways. As such, they have been widely studied as potential therapies for cancer prevention. The second generation synthetic isoflavan analogues ME-143 and ME-344 also exhibit anti-cancer effects, however their specific molecular targets have not been completely defined. To identify these targets, we examined the effects of ME-143 and ME-344 on cellular metabolism and found that they are potent inhibitors of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) activity. In isolated HEK293T mitochondria, ME-143 and ME-344 reduced complex I activity to 14.3% and 28.6% of control values respectively. In addition to the inhibition of complex I, ME-344 also significantly inhibited mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol: ferricytochrome-c oxidoreductase) activity by 10.8%. This inhibition of complex I activity (and to a lesser extent complex III activity) was associated with a reduction in mitochondrial oxygen consumption. In permeabilized HEK293T cells, ME-143 and ME-344 significantly reduced the maximum ADP-stimulated respiration rate to 62.3% and 70.0% of control levels respectively in the presence of complex I-linked substrates. Conversely, complex II-linked respiration was unaffected by either drug. We also observed that the inhibition of complex I-linked respiration caused the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Blue native (BN-PAGE) analysis revealed that prolonged loss of ΔΨm results in the destabilization of the native OXPHOS complexes. In particular, treatment of 143B osteosarcoma, HeLa and HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells with ME-344 for 4 h resulted in reduced steady-state levels of mature complex I. Degradation of the complex I subunit NDUFA9, as well as the complex IV (ferrocytochrome c: oxygen oxidoreductase) subunit COXIV, was also evident. The identification of OXPHOS complex I as a target of ME-143 and ME-344 advances our understanding of how these drugs induce cell death by disrupting mitochondrial metabolism, and will direct future work to maximize the anti-cancer capacity of these and other isoflavone-based compounds.

Characterization of Mitochondrial FOXRED1 in the Assembly of Respiratory Chain Complex I

Human Molecular Genetics. May, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25678554

Human mitochondrial complex I is the largest enzyme of the respiratory chain and is composed of 44 different subunits. Complex I subunits are encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) DNA and their assembly requires a number of additional proteins. FAD-dependent oxidoreductase domain-containing protein 1 (FOXRED1) was recently identified as a putative assembly factor and FOXRED1 mutations in patients cause complex I deficiency; however, its role in assembly is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that FOXRED1 is involved in mid-late stages of complex I assembly. In a patient with FOXRED1 mutations, the levels of mature complex I were markedly decreased, and a smaller ∼475 kDa subcomplex was detected. In the absence of FOXRED1, mtDNA-encoded complex I subunits are still translated and transiently assembled into a late stage ∼815 kDa intermediate; but instead of transitioning further to the mature complex I, the intermediate breaks down to an ∼475 kDa complex. As the patient cells contained residual assembled complex I, we disrupted the FOXRED1 gene in HEK293T cells through TALEN-mediated gene editing. Cells lacking FOXRED1 had ∼10% complex I levels, reduced complex I activity, and were unable to grow on galactose media. Interestingly, overexpression of FOXRED1 containing the patient mutations was able to rescue complex I assembly. In addition, FOXRED1 was found to co-immunoprecipitate with a number of complex I subunits. Our studies reveal that FOXRED1 is a crucial component in the productive assembly of complex I and that mutations in FOXRED1 leading to partial loss of function cause defects in complex I biogenesis.

Monocytes and Dendritic Cells Are the Primary Sources of Interleukin 37 in Human Immune Cells

Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27881605

The interleukin (IL)-1 family member IL-37 is one of few anti-inflammatory cytokines, and it is capable of countering a broad spectrum of proinflammatory assaults. Although it is known that leukocytes are a major source of IL-37, knowledge on IL-37 production and secretion in specific immune cell types remains limited. Thus, we investigated IL-37 mRNA expression as well as protein production and secretion in human PBMCs. In PBMCs stimulated with agonists of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1-6 and 9, IL1F7 (the IL-37-encoding gene) was induced up to 9-fold, peaked at 6-8 h and returned to steady-state at 72 h. LPS-induced IL1F7 expression comprised isoforms b and c but not a and e Flow cytometry revealed that among IL-37(+) PBMCs, monocytes predominated (81-91%), but T cells (6-8%) and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs, 1-2%) also contributed to the IL-37(+) leukocyte pool. Monocytes and mDCs, but not T cells, were capable of secreting IL-37. Whereas monocytes and mDCs secreted IL-37 upon LPS stimulation, only mDCs also released IL-37 at steady-state. Among monocyte subsets, IL-37 was LPS inducible and secreted only in classical and, although less pronounced, in intermediate monocytes; secretion was observed as early as 3 h after stimulation. Overall, our data suggest that constitutive IL-37 secretion by mDCs may serve to maintain an anti-inflammatory milieu at steady state, whereas IL-37 is stored in monocytes to be available for rapid release upon inflammatory encounters, thus acting as a novel anti-inflammatory alarmin. These insights may prove important to advancing towards clinical use the protective functions of one of the most powerful anti-inflammatory mediators so far discovered.

Tim29 is a Novel Subunit of the Human TIM22 Translocase and is Involved in Complex Assembly and Stability

ELife. Aug, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27554484

The TIM22 complex mediates the import of hydrophobic carrier proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane. While the TIM22 machinery has been well characterised in yeast, the human complex remains poorly characterised. Here, we identify Tim29 (C19orf52) as a novel, metazoan-specific subunit of the human TIM22 complex. The protein is integrated into the mitochondrial inner membrane with it's C-terminus exposed to the intermembrane space. Tim29 is required for the stability of the TIM22 complex and functions in the assembly of hTim22. Furthermore, Tim29 contacts the Translocase of the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane, TOM complex, enabling a mechanism for transport of hydrophobic carrier substrates across the aqueous intermembrane space. Identification of Tim29 highlights the significance of analysing mitochondrial import systems across phylogenetic boundaries, which can reveal novel components and mechanisms in higher organisms.

Correction: AarF Domain Containing Kinase 3 (ADCK3) Mutant Cells Display Signs of Oxidative Stress, Defects in Mitochondrial Homeostasis and Lysosomal Accumulation

PloS One. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27442024

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148213.].

Proof-of-Concept of Polymeric Sol-Gels in Multi-Drug Delivery and Intraoperative Image-Guided Surgery for Peritoneal Ovarian Cancer

Pharmaceutical Research. Sep, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27283829

The purpose of this study is to investigate a sol-gel transition property and content release profiles for thermosensitive poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly-(ethylene glycol)-block-poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA) hydrogels carrying paclitaxel, rapamycin, and LS301, and to present a proof-of-concept that PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA hydrogels carrying paclitaxel, rapamycin, and LS301, called TheranoGel, exhibit excellent theranostic activity in peritoneal ES-2-luc ovarian cancer xenograft mice.

Impaired Cellular Bioenergetics Causes Mitochondrial Calcium Handling Defects in MT-ND5 Mutant Cybrids

PloS One. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27110715

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can cause mitochondrial disease, a group of metabolic disorders that affect both children and adults. Interestingly, individual mtDNA mutations can cause very different clinical symptoms, however the factors that determine these phenotypes remain obscure. Defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation can disrupt cell signaling pathways, which may shape these disease phenotypes. In particular, mitochondria participate closely in cellular calcium signaling, with profound impact on cell function. Here, we examined the effects of a homoplasmic m.13565C>T mutation in MT-ND5 on cellular calcium handling using transmitochondrial cybrids (ND5 mutant cybrids). We found that the oxidation of NADH and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were significantly reduced in ND5 mutant cybrids. These metabolic defects were associated with a significant decrease in calcium uptake by ND5 mutant mitochondria in response to a calcium transient. Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose did not affect cytosolic calcium levels in control cybrids, but caused an increase in cytosolic calcium in ND5 mutant cybrids. This suggests that glycolytically-generated ATP is required not only to maintain Δψm in ND5 mutant mitochondria but is also critical for regulating cellular calcium homeostasis. We conclude that the m.13565C>T mutation in MT-ND5 causes defects in both mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial calcium sequestration. This disruption of mitochondrial calcium handling, which leads to defects in cellular calcium homeostasis, may be an important contributor to mitochondrial disease pathogenesis.

Restoration of Normal Embryogenesis by Mitochondrial Supplementation in Pig Oocytes Exhibiting Mitochondrial DNA Deficiency

Scientific Reports. Mar, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26987907

An increasing number of women fail to achieve pregnancy due to either failed fertilization or embryo arrest during preimplantation development. This often results from decreased oocyte quality. Indeed, reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number (mitochondrial DNA deficiency) may disrupt oocyte quality in some women. To overcome mitochondrial DNA deficiency, whilst maintaining genetic identity, we supplemented pig oocytes selected for mitochondrial DNA deficiency, reduced cytoplasmic maturation and lower developmental competence, with autologous populations of mitochondrial isolate at fertilization. Supplementation increased development to blastocyst, the final stage of preimplantation development, and promoted mitochondrial DNA replication prior to embryonic genome activation in mitochondrial DNA deficient oocytes but not in oocytes with normal levels of mitochondrial DNA. Blastocysts exhibited transcriptome profiles more closely resembling those of blastocysts from developmentally competent oocytes. Furthermore, mitochondrial supplementation reduced gene expression patterns associated with metabolic disorders that were identified in blastocysts from mitochondrial DNA deficient oocytes. These results demonstrate the importance of the oocyte's mitochondrial DNA investment in fertilization outcome and subsequent embryo development to mitochondrial DNA deficient oocytes.

Vitamin D3 Therapy in Patients with Asthma Complicated by Sinonasal Disease: Secondary Analysis of the Vitamin D Add-on Therapy Enhances Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Asthma Trial

The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Aug, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26971692

Loss of Mitochondrial DNA-encoded Protein ND1 Results in Disruption of Complex I Biogenesis During Early Stages of Assembly

FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26929434

Mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) must be assembled precisely from 45 protein subunits for it to function correctly. One of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoded subunits, ND1, is incorporated during the early stages of complex I assembly. However, little is known about how mutations in ND1 affect this assembly process. We found that in human 143B cybrid cells carrying a homoplasmic MT-ND1 mutation, ND1 protein could not be translated. As a result, the early stages of complex I assembly were disrupted, with mature complex I undetectable and complex I-linked respiration severely reduced to 2.0% of control levels. Interestingly, complex IV (ferrocytochrome c:oxygen oxidoreductase) steady-state levels were also reduced to 40.3%, possibly due to its diminished stability in the absence of respiratory supercomplex formation. This was in comparison with 143B cybrid controls (that contained wild-type mtDNA on the same nuclear background), which exhibited normal complex I, complex IV, and supercomplex assembly. We conclude that the loss of ND1 stalls complex I assembly during the early stages of its biogenesis, which not only results in the loss of mature complex I but also disrupts the stability of complex IV and the respiratory supercomplex to cause mitochondrial dysfunction.-Lim, S. C., Hroudová, J., Van Bergen, N. J., Lopez Sanchez, M. I. G., Trounce, I. A., McKenzie, M. Loss of mitochondrial DNA-encoded protein ND1 results in disruption of complex I biogenesis during early stages of assembly.

AarF Domain Containing Kinase 3 (ADCK3) Mutant Cells Display Signs of Oxidative Stress, Defects in Mitochondrial Homeostasis and Lysosomal Accumulation

PloS One. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26866375

Autosomal recessive ataxias are a clinically diverse group of syndromes that in some cases are caused by mutations in genes with roles in the DNA damage response, transcriptional regulation or mitochondrial function. One of these ataxias, known as Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia Type-2 (ARCA-2, also known as SCAR9/COQ10D4; OMIM: #612016), arises due to mutations in the ADCK3 gene. The product of this gene (ADCK3) is an atypical kinase that is thought to play a regulatory role in coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) biosynthesis. Although much work has been performed on the S. cerevisiae orthologue of ADCK3, the cellular and biochemical role of its mammalian counterpart, and why mutations in this gene lead to human disease is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that ADCK3 localises to mitochondrial cristae and is targeted to this organelle via the presence of an N-terminal localisation signal. Consistent with a role in CoQ10 biosynthesis, ADCK3 deficiency decreased cellular CoQ10 content. In addition, endogenous ADCK3 was found to associate in vitro with recombinant Coq3, Coq5, Coq7 and Coq9, components of the CoQ10 biosynthetic machinery. Furthermore, cell lines derived from ARCA-2 patients display signs of oxidative stress, defects in mitochondrial homeostasis and increases in lysosomal content. Together, these data shed light on the possible molecular role of ADCK3 and provide insight into the cellular pathways affected in ARCA-2 patients.

Combined Defects in Oxidative Phosphorylation and Fatty Acid β-oxidation in Mitochondrial Disease

Bioscience Reports. Feb, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26839416

Mitochondria provide the main source of energy to eukaryotic cells, oxidizing fats and sugars to generate ATP. Mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are two metabolic pathways which are central to this process. Defects in these pathways can result in diseases of the brain, skeletal muscle, heart and liver, affecting approximately 1 in 5000 live births. There are no effective therapies for these disorders, with quality of life severely reduced for most patients. The pathology underlying many aspects of these diseases is not well understood; for example, it is not clear why some patients with primary FAO deficiencies exhibit secondary OXPHOS defects. However, recent findings suggest that physical interactions exist between FAO and OXPHOS proteins, and that these interactions are critical for both FAO and OXPHOS function. Here, we review our current understanding of the interactions between FAO and OXPHOS proteins and how defects in these two metabolic pathways contribute to mitochondrial disease pathogenesis.

Deletion of the Complex I Subunit NDUFS4 Adversely Modulates Cellular Differentiation

Stem Cells and Development. Feb, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26608563

The vast majority of cellular ATP is produced by the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, which comprises the four complexes of the electron transfer chain plus the ATP synthase. Complex I is the largest of the OXPHOS complexes, and mutation of the genes encoding either the subunits or assembly factors of Complex I can result in Complex I deficiency, which is the most common OXPHOS disorder. Mutations in the Complex I gene NDUFS4 lead to Leigh syndrome, which is the most frequent presentation of Complex I deficiency in children presenting with progressive encephalopathy shortly after birth. Symptoms include motor and intellectual retardation, often accompanied by dystonia, ataxia, and growth retardation, and most patients die by 3 years of age. To understand the origins of this disease, we have generated a series of mouse embryonic stem cell lines from blastocysts that were wild type, heterozygous, and homozygous for the deletion of the Ndufs4 gene. We have demonstrated their pluripotency and potential to differentiate into all cell types of the body. Although the loss of Ndufs4 did not affect the stability of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, there were significant differences in patterns of chromosomal gene expression following both spontaneous differentiation and directed neural differentiation into astrocytes. The defect also affected the potential of the cells to generate beating embryoid bodies. These outcomes demonstrate that defects associated with Complex I deficiency affect early gene expression patterns, which escalate during early and later stages of differentiation and are mediated by the defect and not other chromosomal or mitochondrial DNA defects.

Dietary Interventions Designed to Protect the Perinatal Brain from Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy--Creatine Prophylaxis and the Need for Multi-organ Protection

Neurochemistry International. May, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26576837

Birth asphyxia or hypoxia arises from impaired placental gas exchange during labor and remains one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a condition that can strike in pregnancies that have been uneventful until these final moments, and leads to fundamental loss of cellular energy reserves in the newborn. The cascade of metabolic changes that occurs in the brain at birth as a result of hypoxia can lead to significant damage that evolves over several hours and days, the severity of which can be ameliorated with therapeutic cerebral hypothermia. However, this treatment is only applied to a subset of newborns that meet strict inclusion criteria and is usually administered only in facilities with a high level of medical surveillance. Hence, a number of neuropharmacological interventions have been suggested as adjunct therapies to improve the efficacy of hypothermia, which alone improves survival of the post-hypoxic infant but does not altogether prevent adverse neurological outcomes. In this review we discuss the prospect of using creatine as a dietary supplement during pregnancy and nutritional intervention that can significantly decrease the risk of brain damage in the event of severe oxygen deprivation at birth. Because brain damage can also arise secondarily to compromise of other fetal organs (e.g., heart, diaphragm, kidney), and that compromise of mitochondrial function under hypoxic conditions may be a common mechanism leading to damage of these tissues, we present data suggesting that dietary creatine supplementation during pregnancy may be an effective prophylaxis that can protect the fetus from the multi-organ consequences of severe hypoxia at birth.

Generation of Xenomitochondrial Embryonic Stem Cells for the Production of Live Xenomitochondrial Mice

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26530681

The unique features of the mitochondrial genome, such as its high copy number and lack of defined mechanisms of recombination, have hampered efforts to manipulate its sequence to create specific mutations in mouse mtDNA. As such, the generation of in vivo mouse models of mtDNA disease has proved technically challenging. This chapter describes a unique approach to create mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects in mouse ES cells by transferring mtDNA from different murid species into Mus musculus domesticus ES cells using cytoplasmic hybrid ("cybrid") fusion. The resulting "xenocybrid" ES cells carry OXPHOS defects of varying severity, and can be utilized to generate live mouse models of mtDNA disease.

Conservation Implications of Omitting Historical Data Sources: Response to Baisre

Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology. Feb, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26524216

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