In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (7)
- Reviews in the Neurosciences
- Experimental Brain Research
- Brain Research
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Articles by Matthias Deliano in JoVE
Combined Shuttle-Box Training with Electrophysiological Cortex Recording and Stimulation as a Tool to Study Perception and Learning Max F.K. Happel1,2, Matthias Deliano*1, Frank W. Ohl*1,2,3 1Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany, 2Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany, 3Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences (CBBS), Magdeburg, Germany Shuttle-box avoidance learning is well-established in behavioral neuroscience. This protocol describes how shuttle-box learning in rodents can be combined with site-specific electrical intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and simultaneous chronical in vivo recordings as a tool to study multiple aspects of learning and perception.
Other articles by Matthias Deliano on PubMed
Analysis of Evoked and Emergent Patterns of Stimulus-related Auditory Cortical Activity Reviews in the Neurosciences. 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12929916 Cortical activity contains both evoked patterns and emergent patterns of stimulus-related activity. Here we compared evoked and emergent patterns in the primary auditory cortex, field AI, of the gerbil by studying the differential effects of diluting spatial information about the patterns on their geometric dissimilarity by randomly removing channels from the recording data. This identified the sets of most relevant channels for the discrimination of stimuli in both types of patterns. In the evoked patterns the sets of most discriminative channels were found to be focally organized at locations corresponding to the thalamically relayed input into the cortical tonotopic map. In the emergent patterns the sets of most discriminative channels were broadly distributed and held no apparent relationship to the tonotopic map. The results indicate the coexistence in the same neuronal tissue of a topographic mapping principle for the evoked activity and a holographic mapping principle for the emergent activity.
Theta Activity Attenuation Correlates with Avoidance Learning Progress in Gerbils Neuroreport. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17413655 Changes of cortical activity were examined with electrocorticograms sampled from gerbils during learning. Animals were subjected to tone-conditioned avoidance training in a shuttle-box. Electrocorticograms were recorded from an electrode placed over medial prefrontal cortex. Temporal patterns of theta activity were analyzed across 180 successive trials. With the start of conditioning strong theta activity occurred in each trial in the phase immediately after hurdle crossing. With reliable occurrence of conditioned responses, that is at the stage of retrieval of the avoidance response, the theta activity became reduced. A negative correlation exists between the theta power and the development of learning progress. Theta reduction thus could reflect decreasing demands on information processing in the course of avoidance success monitoring across trials.
Stimulus Duration Influences Perceived Simultaneity in Audiovisual Temporal-order Judgment Experimental Brain Research. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19590862 The temporal integration of stimuli in different sensory modalities plays a crucial role in multisensory processing. Previous studies using temporal-order judgments to determine the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) with multisensory stimulation yielded conflicting results on modality-specific delays. While it is known that the relative stimulus intensities of stimuli from different sensory modalities affect their perceived temporal order, we have hypothesized that some of these discrepancies might be explained by a previously overlooked confounding factor, namely the duration of the stimulus. We therefore studied the influence of both factors on the PSS in a spatial-audiovisual temporal-order task. In addition to confirming previous results on the role of stimulus intensity, we report that varying the temporal duration of an audiovisual stimulus pair also affects the perceived temporal order of the auditory and visual stimulus components. Although individual PSS values varied from negative to positive values across participants, we found a systematic shift of PSS values in all participants toward a common attractor value with increasing stimulus duration. This resulted in a stabilization of PSS values with increasing stimulus duration, indicative of a mechanism that compensates individual imbalances between sensory modalities, which might arise from attentional biases toward one modality at short stimulus durations.
Segregation of Task-relevant Conditioned Stimuli from Background Stimuli by Associative Learning Brain Research. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19703425 In the real world, task-relevant, conditioned stimuli are often embedded in a varying background, from which they have to be segregated. Besides sensory mechanisms, associative learning assumingly plays an important role for the segregation of the conditioned from the background stimuli, especially if conditioned and background stimuli are spectro-temporally structured, and psychophysically similar. We therefore investigated the influence of spectro-temporally structured background tones on associative learning of conditioned tones depending on the complexity of the behavioral task and the psychophysical similarity between conditioned and background tones. Frequency-modulated tone sweeps were used as conditioned stimuli, and persisting frequency-modulated tones as background. In a shuttle-box, Mongolian gerbils were subjected to a simple detection task, or to a more complex discrimination task. In contrast to detection learning, introduction or change of background tones affected discrimination performance both during learning and at the stage of retrieval, especially when conditioned and background tones were spectro-temporally similar. The change from a familiar to a new background tone at the stage of retrieval caused a prefrontal dopamine increase and lead to relearning of task-relevant associations. We conclude that conditioned stimuli and background stimuli are processed concomitantly, which might provide contextual information, but requires additional cognitive processing.
Auditory Cortical Activity After Intracortical Microstimulation and Its Role for Sensory Processing and Learning The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20016106 Several studies have shown that animals can learn to make specific use of intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of sensory cortex within behavioral tasks. Here, we investigate how the focal, artificial activation by ICMS leads to a meaningful, behaviorally interpretable signal. In natural learning, this involves large-scale activity patterns in widespread brain-networks. We therefore trained gerbils to discriminate closely neighboring ICMS sites within primary auditory cortex producing evoked responses largely overlapping in space. In parallel, during training, we recorded electrocorticograms (ECoGs) at high spatial resolution. Applying a multivariate classification procedure, we identified late spatial patterns that emerged with discrimination learning from the ongoing poststimulus ECoG. These patterns contained information about the preceding conditioned stimulus, and were associated with a subsequent correct behavioral response by the animal. Thereby, relevant pattern information was mainly carried by neuron populations outside the range of the lateral spatial spread of ICMS-evoked cortical activation (approximately 1.2 mm). This demonstrates that the stimulated cortical area not only encoded information about the stimulation sites by its focal, stimulus-driven activation, but also provided meaningful signals in its ongoing activity related to the interpretation of ICMS learned by the animal. This involved the stimulated area as a whole, and apparently required large-scale integration in the brain. However, ICMS locally interfered with the ongoing cortical dynamics by suppressing pattern formation near the stimulation sites. The interaction between ICMS and ongoing cortical activity has several implications for the design of ICMS protocols and cortical neuroprostheses, since the meaningful interpretation of ICMS depends on this interaction.
Dopamine-modulated Recurrent Corticoefferent Feedback in Primary Sensory Cortex Promotes Detection of Behaviorally Relevant Stimuli The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Jan, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24453315 Dopaminergic neurotransmission in primary auditory cortex (AI) has been shown to be involved in learning and memory functions. Moreover, dopaminergic projections and D1/D5 receptor distributions display a layer-dependent organization, suggesting specific functions in the cortical circuitry. However, the circuit effects of dopaminergic neurotransmission in sensory cortex and their possible roles in perception, learning, and memory are largely unknown. Here, we investigated layer-specific circuit effects of dopaminergic neuromodulation using current source density (CSD) analysis in AI of Mongolian gerbils. Pharmacological stimulation of D1/D5 receptors increased auditory-evoked synaptic currents in infragranular layers, prolonging local thalamocortical input via positive feedback between infragranular output and granular input. Subsequently, dopamine promoted sustained cortical activation by prolonged recruitment of long-range corticocortical networks. A detailed circuit analysis combining layer-specific intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), CSD analysis, and pharmacological cortical silencing revealed that cross-laminar feedback enhanced by dopamine relied on a positive, fast-acting recurrent corticoefferent loop, most likely relayed via local thalamic circuits. Behavioral signal detection analysis further showed that activation of corticoefferent output by infragranular ICMS, which mimicked auditory activation under dopaminergic influence, was most effective in eliciting a behaviorally detectable signal. Our results show that D1/D5-mediated dopaminergic modulation in sensory cortex regulates positive recurrent corticoefferent feedback, which enhances states of high, persistent activity in sensory cortex evoked by behaviorally relevant stimuli. In boosting horizontal network interactions, this potentially promotes the readout of task-related information from cortical synapses and improves behavioral stimulus detection.
Enhanced Cognitive Flexibility in Reversal Learning Induced by Removal of the Extracellular Matrix in Auditory Cortex Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24550310 During brain maturation, the occurrence of the extracellular matrix (ECM) terminates juvenile plasticity by mediating structural stability. Interestingly, enzymatic removal of the ECM restores juvenile forms of plasticity, as for instance demonstrated by topographical reconnectivity in sensory pathways. However, to which degree the mature ECM is a compromise between stability and flexibility in the adult brain impacting synaptic plasticity as a fundamental basis for learning, lifelong memory formation, and higher cognitive functions is largely unknown. In this study, we removed the ECM in the auditory cortex of adult Mongolian gerbils during specific phases of cortex-dependent auditory relearning, which was induced by the contingency reversal of a frequency-modulated tone discrimination, a task requiring high behavioral flexibility. We found that ECM removal promoted a significant increase in relearning performance, without erasing already established-that is, learned-capacities when continuing discrimination training. The cognitive flexibility required for reversal learning of previously acquired behavioral habits, commonly understood to mainly rely on frontostriatal circuits, was enhanced by promoting synaptic plasticity via ECM removal within the sensory cortex. Our findings further suggest experimental modulation of the cortical ECM as a tool to open short-term windows of enhanced activity-dependent reorganization allowing for guided neuroplasticity.