Articles by Melike Schalomon in JoVE
A Novel Method of Drug Administration to Multiple Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the Quantification of Withdrawal Adam Holcombe1, Melike Schalomon1, Trevor James Hamilton1 1Department of Psychology, MacEwan University A novel method for reducing variability when exposing fish to drugs is explained. Fish exposed to various patterns of ethanol exposure were found to have altered anxiety levels during withdrawal in a light/dark scototaxic assay.
Other articles by Melike Schalomon on PubMed
Wheel Running Behavior is Impaired by Both Surgical Section and Genetic Absence of the Mouse Corpus Callosum Brain Research Bulletin. Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11827734 Mice lacking a corpus callosum (CC) often show little or no deficit on tests of behavior. This paper reports that on highly complex bimanual motor tasks, deficits can be found. The speed of running on a wheel with irregularly spaced rungs is reduced by both hereditary absence of the CC in 129 x BALB/c recombinant mice and surgical section of the CC in genetically normal B6D2F(2) mice. The effect of CC absence appears on measures most closely related to speed, no influence exists on the amount of running over a period of 5 days. Motor behavior on a notched balance beam, on the other hand, shows clear superiority of the hybrid mice but no relation with reduced size of the CC, whether it was produced by genotype or surgery. The effect of absent CC is task dependent, but it is not obscured by developmental compensation in the recombinant mice.
Different Data from Different Labs: Lessons from Studies of Gene-environment Interaction Journal of Neurobiology. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12486710 It is sometimes supposed that standardizing tests of mouse behavior will ensure similar results in different laboratories. We evaluated this supposition by conducting behavioral tests with identical apparatus and test protocols in independent laboratories. Eight genetic groups of mice, including equal numbers of males and females, were either bred locally or shipped from the supplier and then tested on six behaviors simultaneously in three laboratories (Albany, NY; Edmonton, AB; Portland, OR). The behaviors included locomotor activity in a small box, the elevated plus maze, accelerating rotarod, visible platform water escape, cocaine activation of locomotor activity, and ethanol preference in a two-bottle test. A preliminary report of this study presented a conventional analysis of conventional measures that revealed strong effects of both genotype and laboratory as well as noteworthy interactions between genotype and laboratory. We now report a more detailed analysis of additional measures and view the data for each test in different ways. Whether mice were shipped from a supplier or bred locally had negligible effects for almost every measure in the six tests, and sex differences were also absent or very small for most behaviors, whereas genetic effects were almost always large. For locomotor activity, cocaine activation, and elevated plus maze, the analysis demonstrated the strong dependence of genetic differences in behavior on the laboratory giving the tests. For ethanol preference and water escape learning, on the other hand, the three labs obtained essentially the same results for key indicators of behavior. Thus, it is clear that the strong dependence of results on the specific laboratory is itself dependent on the task in question. Our results suggest that there may be advantages of test standardization, but laboratory environments probably can never be made sufficiently similar to guarantee identical results on a wide range of tests in a wide range of labs. Interpretations of our results by colleagues in neuroscience as well as the mass media are reviewed. Pessimistic views, prevalent in the media but relatively uncommon among neuroscientists, of mouse behavioral tests as being highly unreliable are contradicted by our data. Despite the presence of noteworthy interactions between genotype and lab environment, most of the larger differences between inbred strains were replicated across the three labs. Strain differences of moderate effects size, on the other hand, often differed markedly among labs, especially those involving three 129-derived strains. Implications for behavioral screening of targeted and induced mutations in mice are discussed.
Reversed Scototaxis During Withdrawal After Daily-moderate, but Not Weekly-binge, Administration of Ethanol in Zebrafish PloS One. 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23675478 Alcohol abuse can lead to severe psychological and physiological damage. Little is known, however, about the relative impact of a small, daily dose of alcohol (daily-moderate schedule) versus a large, once per week dose (weekly-binge schedule). In this study, we examined the effect of each of these schedules on behavioural measures of anxiety in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Adult wild-type zebrafish were administered either 0.2% ethanol on a daily-moderate schedule or 1.4% ethanol on a weekly-binge schedule for a period of 21 days, and then tested for scototaxis (preference for darkness) during withdrawal. Compared to a control group with no alcohol exposure, the daily-moderate group spent significantly more time on the light side of the arena (indicative of decreased anxiety) on day two of withdrawal, but not day 9 of withdrawal. The weekly-binge group was not significantly different from the control group on either day of withdrawal and showed no preference for either the light or dark zones. Our results indicate that even a small dose of alcohol on a daily basis can cause significant, though reversible, changes in behaviour.