Articles by Michael A. Menze in JoVE
Calorespirometry: A Powerful, Noninvasive Approach to Investigate Cellular Energy Metabolism Robert A. Skolik1, Mary E. Konkle2, Michael A. Menze1 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Louisville, 2Department of Chemistry, Ball State University This protocol describes calorespirometry, the direct and simultaneous measurement of both heat dissipation and respiration, which provides a noninvasive approach to assess energy metabolism. This technique is used to assess the contribution of both aerobic and anaerobic pathways to energy utilization by monitoring the total cellular energy flow.
Other articles by Michael A. Menze on PubMed
Effect of Trehalose As an Additive to Dimethyl Sulfoxide Solutions on Ice Formation, Cellular Viability, and Metabolism Cryobiology. | Pubmed ID: 28063960 Cryopreservation is the only established method for long-term preservation of cells and cellular material. This technique involves preservation of cells and cellular components in the presence of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 °C). The organic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (MeSO) is one of the most commonly utilized CPAs and has been used with various levels of success depending on the type of cells. In recent years, to improve cryogenic outcomes, the non-reducing disaccharide trehalose has been used as an additive to MeSO-based freezing solutions. Trehalose is a naturally occurring non-toxic compound found in bacteria, fungi, plants, and invertebrates which has been shown to provide cellular protection during water-limited states. The mechanism by which trehalose improves cryopreservation outcomes remains not fully understood. Raman microspectroscopy is a powerful tool to provide valuable insight into the nature of interactions among water, trehalose, and MeSO during cryopreservation. We found that the addition of trehalose to MeSO based CPA solutions dramatically reduces the area per ice crystals while increasing the number of ice crystals formed when cooled to -40 or -80 °C. Differences in ice-formation patterns were found to have a direct impact on cellular viability. Despite the osmotic stress caused by addition of 100 mM trehalose, improvement in cellular viability was observed. However, the substantial increase in osmotic pressure caused by trehalose concentrations above 100 mM may offset the beneficial effects of changing the morphology of the ice crystals achieved by addition of this sugar.
Modulation of Cellular Energetics by Galactose and Pioglitazone Cell and Tissue Research. | Pubmed ID: 28776185 The Warburg effect is ameliorated by culturing transformed cells in the presence of galactose instead of glucose as the primary carbon source. However, metabolic consequences may occur in addition to sensitizing the cells to mitochondrial toxins. The screening of pharmaceutical agents against transformed cells while using galactose must therefore be carefully evaluated. Pioglitazone is employed in clinical applications to treat type-2 diabetes but clearly has other off-target effects. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) were cultured in glucose or galactose-containing medium to investigate the role of pioglitazone on cellular bioenergetics by calorimetry and respirometry. Compared with cells cultured in 10 mM glucose, HepG2 cells cultured in the presence of 10 mM galactose showed decreased metabolic activity as measured by cellular heat flow. Interestingly, cellular heat flow increased after the addition of pioglitazone for cells cultured in glucose, but not for cells cultured in galactose. Our calorimetric data indicated that a reduction in cellular capacity for glycolysis was the mechanism responsible for the increase in sensitivity to pioglitazone, and possibly to mitochondrial toxins in general, for cells cultured in galactose. Furthermore, oxygen consumption rates were decreased after the addition of pioglitazone to cells grown in glucose but remained unchanged for cells grown in the presence of galactose. We have demonstrated that pioglitazone induces a reduction in mitochondrial activity that is partially compensated via an increase in glycolysis in the presence of glucose.
Potential Functions of LEA Proteins from the Brine Shrimp Artemia Franciscana - Anhydrobiosis Meets Bioinformatics Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics. | Pubmed ID: 28971739 Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a large group of anhydrobiosis-associated intrinsically disordered proteins, which are commonly found in plants and some animals. The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is the only known animal that expresses LEA proteins from three, and not only one, different groups in its anhydrobiotic life stage. The reason for the higher complexity in the A. franciscana LEA proteome (LEAome), compared with other anhydrobiotic animals, remains mostly unknown. To address this issue, we have employed a suite of bioinformatics tools to evaluate the disorder status of the Artemia LEAome and to analyze the roles of intrinsic disorder in functioning of brine shrimp LEA proteins. We show here that A. franciscana LEA proteins from different groups are more similar to each other than one originally expected, while functional differences among members of group three are possibly larger than commonly anticipated. Our data show that although these proteins are characterized by a large variety of forms and possible functions, as a general strategy, A. franciscana utilizes glassy matrix forming LEAs concurrently with proteins that more readily interact with binding partners. It is likely that the function(s) of both types, the matrix-forming and partner-binding LEA proteins, are regulated by changing water availability during desiccation.