Articles by Michael R. Grovola in JoVE
Anatomically Inspired Three-dimensional Micro-tissue Engineered Neural Networks for Nervous System Reconstruction, Modulation, and Modeling Laura A. Struzyna*1,2,3, Dayo O. Adewole*1,2,3, Wisberty J. Gordián-Vélez1,2,3, Michael R. Grovola2,3, Justin C. Burrell2,3, Kritika S. Katiyar2,3,4, Dmitriy Petrov2,3, James P. Harris2,3, D. Kacy Cullen2,3 1Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4School of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University This manuscript details the fabrication of micro-tissue engineered neural networks: three-dimensional micron-sized constructs comprised of long aligned axonal tracts spanning aggregated neuronal population(s) encased in a tubular hydrogel. These living scaffolds can serve as functional relays to reconstruct or modulate neural circuitry or as biofidelic test-beds mimicking gray-white matter neuroanatomy.
Other articles by Michael R. Grovola on PubMed
Prescribing Habits of Vancomycin in the Emergency Department: Are We Dosing Appropriately? The Journal of Emergency Medicine. May, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23466019 To prevent the development of bacterial resistance, current guidelines recommend vancomycin dosages of 15-20 mg/kg based on actual body weight.
Rapid Neuroinflammatory Response Localized to Injured Neurons After Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury in Swine Experimental Neurology. Apr, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28081963 Despite increasing appreciation of the critical role that neuroinflammatory pathways play in brain injury and neurodegeneration, little is known about acute microglial reactivity following diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) - the most common clinical presentation that includes all concussions. Therefore, we investigated acute microglial reactivity using a porcine model of closed-head rotational velocity/acceleration-induced TBI that closely mimics the biomechanical etiology of inertial TBI in humans. We observed rapid microglial reactivity within 15min of both mild and severe TBI. Strikingly, microglial activation was restrained to regions proximal to individual injured neurons - as denoted by trauma-induced plasma membrane disruption - which served as epicenters of acute reactivity. Single-cell quantitative analysis showed that in areas free of traumatically permeabilized neurons, microglial density and morphology were similar between sham or following mild or severe TBI. However, microglia density increased and morphology shifted to become more reactive in proximity to injured neurons. Microglial reactivity around injured neurons was exacerbated following repetitive TBI, suggesting further amplification of acute neuroinflammatory responses. These results indicate that neuronal trauma rapidly activates microglia in a highly localized manner, and suggest that activated microglia may rapidly influence neuronal stability and/or pathophysiology after diffuse TBI.
Comprehensive Pharmacological Profiling of Neurofibromatosis Cell Lines American Journal of Cancer Research. 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28469964 Patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) are predisposed to tumors of the nervous system. NF1 patients predominantly develop neurofibromas, and Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNST) while NF2 patients develop schwannomas and meningiomas. Here we quantified the drug sensitivities of NF1 and NF2 tumor cell lines in a high throughput platform. The platform contained a comprehensive collection of inhibitors of MEK, RAF, RAS, farnesyl transferase, PAK and ERK, representative drugs against many other cancer pathways including Wnt, Hedgehog, p53, EGF, HDAC, as well as classical cytotoxic agents recommended for treating MPNST, such as doxorubicin and etoposide. We profiled seven NF1-associated MPNST cell lines (ST88-14, ST88-3, 90-8, sNF02.2, T265, S462TY, SNF96.2), one sporadic MPNST cell line (STS26), one schwannoma from a NF2 patient (HEI193), one NF2-deficient malignant meningioma (KT21-MG-Luc5D), one mouse NF2 schwannoma (SC4) and one sporadic rat schwannoma (RT4-67 or RT4). NF1 cells were primarily distinguished from NF2 cells and the sporadic MPNST cell line by their sensitivity to MEK and ERK inhibitors, and to a smaller extent their sensitivity to BH3 mimetics and farnesyl transferase inhibitors. The platform was highly successful in predicting the effects of clinical trials for Neurofibromas.