In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (5)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Microscopy and Microanalysis : the Official Journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical Society of Canada
- Journal of Cell Science
- Journal of Structural Biology
Articles by Michele C. Darrow in JoVE
Volume Segmentation and Analysis of Biological Materials Using SuRVoS (Super-region Volume Segmentation) Workbench Michele C. Darrow1, Imanol Luengo1,2, Mark Basham1, Matthew C. Spink1, Sarah Irvine1, Andrew P. French2, Alun W. Ashton1, Elizabeth M.H. Duke1 1Science Division, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond Light Source, 2School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham Segmentation of three-dimensional data from many imaging techniques is a major bottleneck in analysis of complex biological systems. Here, we describe the use of SuRVoS Workbench to semi-automatically segment volumetric data at various length-scales using example datasets from cryo-electron tomography, cryo soft X-ray tomography, and phase contrast X-ray tomography techniques.
Other articles by Michele C. Darrow on PubMed
Impact of a Stress-inducible Switch to Mutagenic Repair of DNA Breaks on Mutation in Escherichia Coli Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21808005 Basic ideas about the constancy and randomness of mutagenesis that drives evolution were challenged by the discovery of mutation pathways activated by stress responses. These pathways could promote evolution specifically when cells are maladapted to their environment (i.e., are stressed). However, the clearest example--a general stress-response-controlled switch to error-prone DNA break (double-strand break, DSB) repair--was suggested to be peculiar to an Escherichia coli F' conjugative plasmid, not generally significant, and to occur by an alternative stress-independent mechanism. Moreover, mechanisms of spontaneous mutation in E. coli remain obscure. First, we demonstrate that this same mechanism occurs in chromosomes of starving F(-) E. coli. I-SceI endonuclease-induced chromosomal DSBs increase mutation 50-fold, dependent upon general/starvation- and DNA-damage-stress responses, DinB error-prone DNA polymerase, and DSB-repair proteins. Second, DSB repair is also mutagenic if the RpoS general-stress-response activator is expressed in unstressed cells, illustrating a stress-response-controlled switch to mutagenic repair. Third, DSB survival is not improved by RpoS or DinB, indicating that mutagenesis is not an inescapable byproduct of repair. Importantly, fourth, fully half of spontaneous frame-shift and base-substitution mutation during starvation also requires the same stress-response, DSB-repair, and DinB proteins. These data indicate that DSB-repair-dependent stress-induced mutation, driven by spontaneous DNA breaks, is a pathway that cells usually use and a major source of spontaneous mutation. These data also rule out major alternative models for the mechanism. Mechanisms that couple mutagenesis to stress responses can allow cells to evolve rapidly and responsively to their environment.
Structural Mechanisms of Mutant Huntingtin Aggregation Suppression by the Synthetic Chaperonin-like CCT5 Complex Explained by Cryoelectron Tomography The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jul, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25995452 Huntington disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by functional deficits and loss of striatal neurons, is linked to an expanded and unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene (HTT). This DNA sequence translates to a polyglutamine repeat in the protein product, leading to mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein aggregation. The aggregation of mHTT is inhibited in vitro and in vivo by the TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC) chaperonin. Recently, a novel complex comprised of a single type of TRiC subunit has been reported to inhibit mHTT aggregation. Specifically, the purified CCT5 homo-oligomer complex, when compared with TRiC, has a similar structure, ATP use, and substrate refolding activity, and, importantly, it also inhibits mHTT aggregation. Using an aggregation suppression assay and cryoelectron tomography coupled with a novel computational classification method, we uncover the interactions between the synthetic CCT5 complex (∼ 1 MDa) and aggregates of mutant huntingtin exon 1 containing 46 glutamines (mHTTQ46-Ex1). We find that, in a similar fashion to TRiC, synthetic CCT5 complex caps mHTT fibrils at their tips and encapsulates mHTT oligomers, providing a structural description of the inhibition of mHTTQ46-Ex1 by CCT5 complex and a shared mechanism of mHTT inhibition between TRiC chaperonin and the CCT5 complex: cap and contain.
Quantifying Variability of Manual Annotation in Cryo-Electron Tomograms Microscopy and Microanalysis : the Official Journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical Society of Canada. Jun, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27225525 Although acknowledged to be variable and subjective, manual annotation of cryo-electron tomography data is commonly used to answer structural questions and to create a "ground truth" for evaluation of automated segmentation algorithms. Validation of such annotation is lacking, but is critical for understanding the reproducibility of manual annotations. Here, we used voxel-based similarity scores for a variety of specimens, ranging in complexity and segmented by several annotators, to quantify the variation among their annotations. In addition, we have identified procedures for merging annotations to reduce variability, thereby increasing the reliability of manual annotation. Based on our analyses, we find that it is necessary to combine multiple manual annotations to increase the confidence level for answering structural questions. We also make recommendations to guide algorithm development for automated annotation of features of interest.
Visualizing Red Blood Cell Sickling and the Effects of Inhibition of Sphingosine Kinase 1 Using Soft X-ray Tomography Journal of Cell Science. Sep, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27505892 Sickle cell disease is a destructive genetic disorder characterized by the formation of fibrils of deoxygenated hemoglobin, leading to the red blood cell (RBC) morphology changes that underlie the clinical manifestations of this disease. Using cryogenic soft X-ray tomography (SXT), we characterized the morphology of sickled RBCs in terms of volume and the number of protrusions per cell. We were able to identify statistically a relationship between the number of protrusions and the volume of the cell, which is known to correlate to the severity of sickling. This structural polymorphism allows for the classification of the stages of the sickling process. Recent studies have shown that elevated sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1)-mediated sphingosine 1-phosphate production contributes to sickling. Here, we further demonstrate that compound 5C, an inhibitor of Sphk1, has anti-sickling properties. Additionally, the variation in cellular morphology upon treatment suggests that this drug acts to delay the sickling process. SXT is an effective tool that can be used to identify the morphology of the sickling process and assess the effectiveness of potential therapeutics.
SuRVoS: Super-Region Volume Segmentation Workbench Journal of Structural Biology. Apr, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28246039 Segmentation of biological volumes is a crucial step needed to fully analyse their scientific content. Not having access to convenient tools with which to segment or annotate the data means many biological volumes remain under-utilised. Automatic segmentation of biological volumes is still a very challenging research field, and current methods usually require a large amount of manually-produced training data to deliver a high-quality segmentation. However, the complex appearance of cellular features and the high variance from one sample to another, along with the time-consuming work of manually labelling complete volumes, makes the required training data very scarce or non-existent. Thus, fully automatic approaches are often infeasible for many practical applications. With the aim of unifying the segmentation power of automatic approaches with the user expertise and ability to manually annotate biological samples, we present a new workbench named SuRVoS (Super-Region Volume Segmentation). Within this software, a volume to be segmented is first partitioned into hierarchical segmentation layers (named Super-Regions) and is then interactively segmented with the user's knowledge input in the form of training annotations. SuRVoS first learns from and then extends user inputs to the rest of the volume, while using Super-Regions for quicker and easier segmentation than when using a voxel grid. These benefits are especially noticeable on noisy, low-dose, biological datasets.