In JoVE (1)
Articles by Misty M. Montoya in JoVE
Other articles by Misty M. Montoya on PubMed
The Glutamate Transporter, GLAST, Participates in a Macromolecular Complex That Supports Glutamate Metabolism Neurochemistry International. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22306776 GLAST is the predominant glutamate transporter in the cerebellum and contributes substantially to glutamate transport in forebrain. This astroglial glutamate transporter quickly binds and clears synaptically released glutamate and is principally responsible for ensuring that synaptic glutamate concentrations remain low. This process is associated with a significant energetic cost. Compartmentalization of GLAST with mitochondria and proteins involved in energy metabolism could provide energetic support for glutamate transport. Therefore, we performed immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments to determine if GLAST might co-compartmentalize with proteins involved in energy metabolism. GLAST was immunoprecipitated from rat cerebellum and subunits of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, glycolytic enzymes, and mitochondrial proteins were detected. GLAST co-localized with mitochondria in cerebellar tissue. GLAST also co-localized with mitochondria in fine processes of astrocytes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. From these data, we hypothesized that mitochondria participate in a macromolecular complex with GLAST to support oxidative metabolism of transported glutamate. To determine the functional metabolic role of this complex, we measured CO(2) production from radiolabeled glutamate in cultured astrocytes and compared it to overall glutamate uptake. Within 15min, 9% of transported glutamate was converted to CO(2). This CO(2) production was blocked by inhibitors of glutamate transport and glutamate dehydrogenase, but not by an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase. Our data support a model in which GLAST exists in a macromolecular complex that allows transported glutamate to be metabolized in mitochondria to support energy production.
A MicroRNA Upregulated in Asthma Airway T Cells Promotes TH2 Cytokine Production Nature Immunology. Dec, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25362490 MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert powerful effects on immunological function by tuning networks of target genes that orchestrate cell activity. We sought to identify miRNAs and miRNA-regulated pathways that control the type 2 helper T cell (TH2 cell) responses that drive pathogenic inflammation in asthma. Profiling miRNA expression in human airway-infiltrating T cells revealed elevated expression of the miRNA miR-19a in asthma. Modulating miR-19 activity altered TH2 cytokine production in both human and mouse T cells, and TH2 cell responses were markedly impaired in cells lacking the entire miR-17∼92 cluster. miR-19 promoted TH2 cytokine production and amplified inflammatory signaling by direct targeting of the inositol phosphatase PTEN, the signaling inhibitor SOCS1 and the deubiquitinase A20. Thus, upregulation of miR-19a in asthma may be an indicator and a cause of increased TH2 cytokine production in the airways.