Articles by Mulenga Musapa in JoVE
A Simple Chelex Protocol for DNA Extraction from Anopheles spp. Mulenga Musapa1, Taida Kumwenda1, Mtawa Mkulama1, Sandra Chishimba1, Douglas E. Norris2, Philip E. Thuma1, Sungano Mharakurwa1 1Malaria Institute at Macha, 2Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health A rapid and affordable way to extract quality malaria parasite and vector DNA from mosquito specimens is described. Capitalizing on chelating properties of Chelex resin, the simple method enables genotyping of malaria parasites in mosquito mid-gut and salivary gland phases, as well as molecular identification of the Anopheles sibling species by PCR.
Other articles by Mulenga Musapa on PubMed
Identifying Malaria Vector Breeding Habitats with Remote Sensing Data and Terrain-based Landscape Indices in Zambia International Journal of Health Geographics. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21050496 Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures.
Natural Microbe-mediated Refractoriness to Plasmodium Infection in Anopheles Gambiae Science (New York, N.Y.). May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21566196 Malaria parasite transmission depends on the successful transition of Plasmodium through discrete developmental stages in the lumen of the mosquito midgut. Like the human intestinal tract, the mosquito midgut contains a diverse microbial flora, which may compromise the ability of Plasmodium to establish infection. We have identified an Enterobacter bacterium isolated from wild mosquito populations in Zambia that renders the mosquito resistant to infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum by interfering with parasite development before invasion of the midgut epithelium. Phenotypic analyses showed that the anti-Plasmodium mechanism requires small populations of replicating bacteria and is mediated through a mosquito-independent interaction with the malaria parasite. We show that this anti-Plasmodium effect is largely caused by bacterial generation of reactive oxygen species.
Malaria Antifolate Resistance with Contrasting Plasmodium Falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR) Polymorphisms in Humans and Anopheles Mosquitoes Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22065788 Surveillance for drug-resistant parasites in human blood is a major effort in malaria control. Here we report contrasting antifolate resistance polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum when parasites in human blood were compared with parasites in Anopheles vector mosquitoes from sleeping huts in rural Zambia. DNA encoding P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (EC 220.127.116.11) was amplified by PCR with allele-specific restriction enzyme digestions. Markedly prevalent pyrimethamine-resistant mutants were evident in human P. falciparum infections--S108N (>90%), with N51I, C59R, and 108N+51I+59R triple mutants (30-80%). This resistance level may be from selection pressure due to decades of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine use in the region. In contrast, cycloguanil-resistant mutants were detected in very low frequency in parasites from human blood samples-S108T (13%), with A16V and 108T+16V double mutants (âˆ¼4%). Surprisingly, pyrimethamine-resistant mutants were of very low prevalence (2-12%) in the midguts of Anopheles arabiensis vector mosquitoes, but cycloguanil-resistant mutants were highly prevalent-S108T (90%), with A16V and the 108T+16V double mutant (49-57%). Structural analysis of the dihydrofolate reductase by in silico modeling revealed a key difference in the enzyme within the NADPH binding pocket, predicting the S108N enzyme to have reduced stability but the S108T enzyme to have increased stability. We conclude that P. falciparum can bear highly host-specific drug-resistant polymorphisms, most likely reflecting different selective pressures found in humans and mosquitoes. Thus, it may be useful to sample both human and mosquito vector infections to accurately ascertain the epidemiological status of drug-resistant alleles.