Articles by Nathaniel W Holton in JoVE
Application of Laser Micro-irradiation for Examination of Single and Double Strand Break Repair in Mammalian Cells Nathaniel W Holton1, Joel F Andrews1, Natalie R Gassman1 1Department of Oncologic Sciences, University of South Alabama Mitchell Cancer Institute Confocal fluorescence microscopy and laser micro-irradiation offer tools for inducing DNA damage and monitoring the response of DNA repair proteins in selected sub-nuclear areas. This technique has significantly advanced our knowledge of damage detection, signaling, and recruitment. This manuscript demonstrates these technologies to examine single and double strand break repair.
Other articles by Nathaniel W Holton on PubMed
Histone H2A and H2B Are Monoubiquitinated at AID-targeted Loci PloS One. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20661291 Somatic hypermutation introduces base substitutions into the rearranged and expressed immunoglobulin (Ig) variable regions to promote immunity. This pathway requires and is initiated by the Activation Induced Deaminase (AID) protein, which deaminates cytidine to produce uracils and UG mismatches at the Ig genes. Subsequent processing of uracil by mismatch repair and base excision repair factors contributes to mutagenesis. While selective for certain genomic targets, the chromatin modifications which distinguish hypermutating from non-hypermutating loci are not defined.
Repression of Human Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase by MiR-93 and MiR-155 BMC Cancer. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21831295 Activation Induced cytidine Deaminase (AID) targets the immunoglobulin genes of activated B cells, where it converts cytidine to uracil to induce mutagenesis and recombination. While essential for immunoglobulin gene diversification, AID misregulation can result in genomic instability and oncogenic transformation. This is classically illustrated in Burkitt's lymphoma, which is characterized by AID-induced mutation and reciprocal translocation of the c-MYC oncogene with the IgH loci. Originally thought to be B cell-specific, AID now appears to be misexpressed in several epithelial cancers, raising the specter that AID may also participate in non-B cell carcinogenesis.
Comprehensive Analysis of MicroRNA Genomic Loci Identifies Pervasive Repetitive-element Origins Mobile Genetic Elements. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22016841 MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that generally function as negative regulators of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) at the posttranscriptional level. MiRs bind to the 3'UTR of target mRNAs through complementary base pairing, resulting in target mRNA cleavage or translation repression. To date, over 15,000 distinct miRs have been identified in organisms ranging from viruses to man and interest in miR research continues to intensify. Of note, the most enlightening aspect of miR function-the mRNAs they target-continues to be elusive. Descriptions of the molecular origins of independent miR molecules currently support the hypothesis that miR hairpin generation is based on the adjacent insertion of two related transposable elements (TEs) at one genomic locus. Thus transcription across such TE interfaces establishes many, if not the majority of functional miRs. The implications of these findings are substantial for understanding how TEs confer increased genomic fitness, describing miR transcriptional regulations and making accurate miR target predictions. In this work, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the genomic events responsible for the formation of all currently annotated miR loci. We find that the connection between miRs and transposable elements is more significant than previously appreciated, and more broadly, supports an important role for repetitive elements in miR origin, expression and regulatory network formation. Further, we demonstrate the utility of these findings in miR target prediction. Our results greatly expand the existing repertoire of defined miR origins, detailing the formation of 2,392 of 15,176 currently recognized miR genomic loci and supporting a mobile genetic element model for the genomic establishment of functional miRs.