Articles by Neela Zareen in JoVE
Protocol for Culturing Sympathetic Neurons from Rat Superior Cervical Ganglia (SCG) Neela Zareen1, Lloyd A. Greene2 1Department of Biology, Columbia University, 2Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University This is a protocol describing how to isolate and culture primary sympathetic neurons from superior cervical ganglia (SCG) of newborn rat pups.
Other articles by Neela Zareen on PubMed
Residues in the Conserved His Domain of Fruit Fly TRNase Z That Function in Catalysis Are Not Involved in Substrate Recognition or Binding Journal of Molecular Biology. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15935379 Transfer RNAs are transcribed as precursors with extensions at both the 5' and 3' ends. RNase P removes endonucleolytically the 5' end leader. tRNase Z can remove endonucleolytically the 3' end trailer as a necessary step in tRNA maturation. CCA is not transcriptionally encoded in the tRNAs of eukaryotes, archaebacteria and some bacteria and must be added by a CCA-adding enzyme after removal of the 3' end trailer. tRNase Z is a member of the beta-lactamase family of metal-dependent hydrolases, the signature sequence of which, the conserved histidine cluster (HxHxDH), is essential for activity. Starting with baculovirus-expressed fruit fly tRNase Z, we completed an 18 residue Ala scan of the His cluster to analyze the functional landscape of this critical region. Residues in and around the His cluster fall into three categories based on effects of the substitutions on processing efficiency: substitutions in eight residues have little effect, five substitutions reduce efficiency moderately (approximately 5-50-fold), while substitutions in five conserved residues, one serine, three histidine and one aspartate, severely reduce efficiency (approximately 500-5000-fold). Wild-type and mutant dissociation constants (Kd values), determined using gel shifts, displayed no substantial differences, and were of the same order as kM (2-20 nM). Lower processing efficiencies arising from substitutions in the His domain are almost entirely due to reduced kcat values; conserved, functionally important residues within the His cluster of tRNase Z are thus involved in catalysis, and substrate recognition and binding functions must reside elsewhere in the protein.
Naturally Occurring Mutations in Human Mitochondrial Pre-tRNASer(UCN) Can Affect the Transfer Ribonuclease Z Cleavage Site, Processing Kinetics, and Substrate Secondary Structure The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16361254 tRNAs are transcribed as precursors with a 5' end leader and a 3' end trailer. The 5' end leader is processed by RNase P, and in most organisms in all three kingdoms, transfer ribonuclease (tRNase) Z can endonucleolytically remove the 3' end trailer. Long ((L)) and short ((S)) forms of the tRNase Z gene are present in the human genome. tRNase Z(L) processes a nuclear-encoded pre-tRNA approximately 1600-fold more efficiently than tRNase Z(S) and is predicted to have a strong mitochondrial transport signal. tRNase Z(L) could, thus, process both nuclear- and mitochondrially encoded pre-tRNAs. More than 150 pathogenesis-associated mutations have been found in the mitochondrial genome, most of them in the 22 mitochondrially encoded tRNAs. All the mutations investigated in human mitochondrial tRNA(Ser(UCN)) affect processing efficiency, and some affect the cleavage site and secondary structure. These changes could affect tRNase Z processing of mutant pre-tRNAs, perhaps contributing to mitochondrial disease.
Residues in Two Homology Blocks on the Amino Side of the TRNase Z His Domain Contribute Unexpectedly to Pre-tRNA 3' End Processing RNA (New York, N.Y.). Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16618969 tRNase Z, which can endonucleolytically remove pre-tRNA 3'-end trailers, possesses the signature His domain (HxHxDH; Motif II) of the beta-lactamase family of metal-dependent hydrolases. Motif II combines with Motifs III-V on its carboxy side to coordinate two divalent metal ions, constituting the catalytic core. The PxKxRN loop and Motif I on the amino side of Motif II have been suggested to modulate tRNase Z activity, including the anti-determinant effect of CCA in mature tRNA. Ala walks through these two homology blocks reveal residues in which the substitutions unexpectedly reduce catalytic efficiency. While substitutions in Motif II can drastically affect k(cat) without affecting k(M), five- to 15-fold increases in k(M) are observed with substitutions in several conserved residues in the PxKxRN loop and Motif I. These increases in k(M) suggest a model for substrate binding. Expressed tRNase Z processes mature tRNA with CCA at the 3' end approximately 80 times less efficiently than a pre-tRNA possessing natural sequence of the 3'-end trailer, due to reduced k(cat) with no effect on k(M), showing the CCA anti-determinant to be a characteristic of this enzyme.