In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (42)

Articles by Neha Agarwal in JoVE

Other articles by Neha Agarwal on PubMed

The Application of the Mancini Technique As a Diagnostic Test in the CSF of Tuberculous Meningitis Patients

Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research. Jun, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12070446

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is still a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in developing nations, and the timing of treatment is the most crucial factor affecting the ultimate outcome. To establish a rapid diagnosis, we used Single Radial Immuno-Diffusion (SRID) to detect circulating mycobacterium antigen in the CSF of patients with clinically suspected TBM.

Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis Using the Simple Dot ELISA Method

Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research. Nov, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 14586287

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a serious central nervous system infection, which is seen in clinical practice fairly frequently in developing and underdeveloped countries. Our study was intended to develop a reliable and rapid diagnostic methodology for detecting mycobacterium tuberculous bacilli (MTB) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Dot Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (Dot ELISA) has been standardized to detect MTB antigens and antibodies against MTB in the CSF of TBM patients.

Differential Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis from Partially-treated Pyogenic Meningitis by Cell ELISA

BMC Neurology. Oct, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15498107

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a major global health problem, and it is sometimes difficult to perform a differential diagnosis of this disease from other diseases, particularly partially-treated pyogenic meningitis (PTPM). In an earlier study, we demonstrated the presence of a 30-kD protein antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of TBM patients. We have also shown that lymphocytes from CSF of TBM patients respond differently to this antigen than do those from PTPM patients. The purpose of this study was to develop an assay that can discriminate between TBM and PTPM.

Influence of Serum Leptin on Weight and Body Fat Growth in Children at High Risk for Adult Obesity

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Mar, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17179198

Our objective was to examine serum leptin prospectively as a predictor of weight and body fat growth in children at high risk for adult obesity. We hypothesized that leptin measurements would be positively associated with increased growth of adipose tissue because children with high baseline leptin for their body fat mass have greater leptin resistance and thus would have greater susceptibility to weight gain.

Vitamin D Status of Apparently Healthy Schoolgirls from Two Different Socioeconomic Strata in Delhi: Relation to Nutrition and Lifestyle

The British Journal of Nutrition. Apr, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 17903343

Forty to fifty per cent of skeletal mass, accumulated during childhood and adolescence, is influenced by sunlight exposure, physical activity, lifestyle, endocrine status, nutrition and gender. In view of scarce data on association of nutrition and lifestyle with hypovitaminosis D in Indian children and adolescents, an in-depth study on 3,127 apparently healthy Delhi schoolgirls (6-18 years) from the lower (LSES, n 1,477) and upper socioeconomic strata (USES, n 1650) was carried out. These girls were subjected to anthropometry and clinical examination for hypovitaminosis D. Girls randomly selected from the two strata (LSES, n 193; USES, n 211) underwent detailed lifestyle, dietary, biochemical and hormonal assessment. Clinical vitamin D deficiency was noted in 11.5 % girls (12.4 % LSES, 10.7 % USES). USES girls had significantly higher BMI than LSES counterparts. Prevalence of biochemical hypovitaminosis D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 50 nmol/l) was seen in 90.8 % of girls (89.6 % LSES, 91.9 % USES, NS). Mean intake of energy, protein, fat, Ca, vitamin D and milk/milk products was significantly higher in USES than LSES girls. Conversely, carbohydrate, fibre, phytate and cereal intakes were higher in LSES than USES girls. Physical activity and time spent outdoors was significantly higher in LSES girls (92.8 v. 64 %, P = 0.000). Significant correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and estimated sun exposure (r 0.185, P = 0.001) and percentage body surface area exposed (r 0.146, P = 0.004) suggests that these lifestyle-related factors may contribute significantly to the vitamin D status of the apparently healthy schoolgirls. Hence, in the absence of vitamin D fortification of foods, diet alone appears to have an insignificant role.

Increased Metabolic Vulnerability in Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease is Not Related to Amyloid Burden

Brain : a Journal of Neurology. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20080878

Patients with early age-of-onset Alzheimer's disease show more rapid progression, more generalized cognitive deficits and greater cortical atrophy and hypometabolism compared to late-onset patients at a similar disease stage. The biological mechanisms that underlie these differences are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine in vivo whether metabolic differences between early-onset and late-onset Alzheimer's disease are associated with differences in the distribution and burden of fibrillar amyloid-beta. Patients meeting criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease (National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's; Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria) were divided based on estimated age at first symptom (less than or greater than 65 years) into early-onset (n = 21, mean age-at-onset 55.2 +/- 5.9 years) and late-onset (n = 18, 72.0 +/- 4.7 years) groups matched for disease duration and severity. Patients underwent positron emission tomography with the amyloid-beta-ligand [(11)C]-labelled Pittsburgh compound-B and the glucose analogue [(18)F]-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose. A group of cognitively normal controls (n = 30, mean age 73.7 +/- 6.4) was studied for comparison. [(11)C]-labelled Pittsburgh compound-B images were analysed using Logan graphical analysis (cerebellar reference) and [(18)F]-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose images were normalized to mean activity in the pons. Group differences in tracer uptake were assessed on a voxel-wise basis using statistical parametric mapping, and by comparing mean values in regions of interest. To account for brain atrophy, analyses were repeated after applying partial volume correction to positron emission tomography data. Compared to normal controls, both early-onset and late-onset Alzheimer's disease patient groups showed increased [(11)C]-labelled Pittsburgh compound-B uptake throughout frontal, parietal and lateral temporal cortices and striatum on voxel-wise and region of interest comparisons (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in regional or global [(11)C]-labelled Pittsburgh compound-B binding between early-onset and late-onset patients. In contrast, early-onset patients showed significantly lower glucose metabolism than late-onset patients in precuneus/posterior cingulate, lateral temporo-parietal and occipital corticies (voxel-wise and region of interest comparisons, P < 0.05). Similar results were found for [(11)C]-labelled Pittsburgh compound-B and [(18)F]-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose using atrophy-corrected data. Age-at-onset correlated positively with glucose metabolism in precuneus, lateral parietal and occipital regions of interest (controlling for age, education and Mini Mental State Exam, P < 0.05), while no correlations were found between age-at-onset and [(11)C]-labelled Pittsburgh compound-B binding. In summary, a comparable burden of fibrillar amyloid-beta was associated with greater posterior cortical hypometabolism in early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Our data are consistent with a model in which both early amyloid-beta accumulation and increased vulnerability to amyloid-beta pathology play critical roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease in young patients.

Impact of Two Regimens of Vitamin D Supplementation on Calcium - Vitamin D - PTH Axis of Schoolgirls of Delhi

Indian Pediatrics. Sep, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20308769

To determine the efficacy of supplementation with oral vitamin D₃ (cholecalciferol) on bone mineral biochemical parameters of school-going girls.

Endometriosis - Morphology, Clinical Presentations and Molecular Pathology

Journal of Laboratory Physicians. Jan, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 21814398

Endometriosis is found predominantly in women of childbearing age. The prevalence of endometriosis is difficult to determine accurately. Laparoscopy or surgery is required for the definitive diagnosis. The most common symptoms are dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and low back pain that worsen during menses. Endometriosis occurring shortly after menarche has been frequently reported. Endometriosis has been described in a few cases at the umbilicus, even without prior history of abdominal surgery. It has been described in various atypical sites such as the fallopian tubes, bowel, liver, thorax, and even in the extremities. The most commonly affected areas in decreasing order of frequency in the gastrointestinal tract are the recto-sigmoid colon, appendix, cecum, and distal ileum. The prevalence of appendiceal endometriosis is 2.8%. Malignant transformation is a well-described, although rare (<1% of cases), complication of endometriosis. Approximately 75% of these tumors arise from endometriosis of the ovary. Other less common sites include the rectovaginal septum, rectum, and sigmoid colon. Unopposed estrogens therapy may play a role in the development of such tumors. A more recent survey of 27 malignancies associated with endometriosis found that 17 (62%) were in the ovary, 3 (11%) in the vagina, 2 (7%) each in the fallopian tube or mesosalpinx, pelvic sidewall, and colon, and 1 (4%) in the parametrium. Two cases of cerebral endometriosis and a case of endometriosis presenting as a cystic mass in the cerebellar vermis has been described. Treatment for endometriosis can be expectant, medical, or surgical depending on the severity of symptoms and the patient's desire to maintain or restore fertility.

Cap2-HAP Complex is a Critical Transcriptional Regulator That Has Dual but Contrasting Roles in Regulation of Iron Homeostasis in Candida Albicans

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jul, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21592964

Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in organisms across evolutionary time scale as iron is essential for various cellular processes. In a computational screen, we identified the Yap/bZIP domain family in Candida clade genomes. Cap2/Hap43 is essential for C. albicans growth under iron-deprivation conditions and for virulence in mouse. Cap2 has an amino-terminal bipartite domain comprising a fungal-specific Hap4-like domain and a bZIP domain. Our mutational analyses showed that both the bZIP and Hap4-like domains perform critical and independent functions for growth under iron-deprivation conditions. Transcriptome analysis conducted under iron-deprivation conditions identified about 16% of the C. albicans ORFs that were differentially regulated in a Cap2-dependent manner. Microarray data also suggested that Cap2 is required to mobilize iron through multiple mechanisms; chiefly by activation of genes in three iron uptake pathways and repression of iron utilizing and iron storage genes. The expression of HAP2, HAP32, and HAP5, core components of the HAP regulatory complex was induced in a Cap2-dependent manner indicating a feed-forward loop. In a feed-back loop, Cap2 repressed the expression of Sfu1, a negative regulator of iron uptake genes. Cap2 was coimmunoprecipitated with Hap5 from cell extracts prepared from iron-deprivation conditions indicating an in vivo association. ChIP assays demonstrated Hap32-dependent recruitment of Hap5 to the promoters of FRP1 (Cap2-induced) and ACO1 (Cap2-repressed). Together our data indicates that the Cap2-HAP complex functions both as a positive and a negative regulator to maintain iron homeostasis in C. albicans.

Effects of Sports Training & Nutrition on Bone Mineral Density in Young Indian Healthy Females

The Indian Journal of Medical Research. Sep, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21985813

Peak bone mass, a major determinant of osteoporosis is influenced by genetic, nutritional, lifestyle and hormonal factors. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of sports training on dietary intake and bone mineral and metabolic parameters in young healthy Indian females.

Role for Gene Looping in Intron-mediated Enhancement of Transcription

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. May, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22586116

Intron-containing genes are often transcribed more efficiently than nonintronic genes. The effect of introns on transcription of genes is an evolutionarily conserved feature, being exhibited by such diverse organisms as yeast, plants, flies, and mammals. The mechanism of intron-mediated transcriptional activation, however, is not entirely clear. To address this issue, we inserted an intron in INO1, which is a nonintronic gene, and deleted the intron from ASC1, which contains a natural intron. We then compared transcription of INO1 and ASC1 genes in the presence and absence of an intron. Transcription of both genes was significantly stimulated by the intron. The introns have a direct role in enhancing transcription of INO1 and ASC1 because there was a marked increase in nascent transcripts from these genes in the presence of an intron. Intron-mediated enhancement of transcription required a splicing competent intron. Interestingly, both INO1 and ASC1 were in a looped configuration when their genes contained an intron. Intron-dependent gene looping involved a physical interaction of the promoter and the terminator regions. In addition, the promoter region interacted with the 5' splice site and the terminator with the 3' splice site. Intron-mediated enhancement of transcription was completely abolished in the looping defective sua7-1 strain. No effect on splicing, however, was observed in sua7-1 strain. On the basis of these results, we propose a role for gene looping in intron-mediated transcriptional activation of genes in yeast.

Crouzon Syndrome: Clinico-radiological Illustration of a Case

Journal of Clinical Imaging Science. 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23393627

Crouzon syndrome, also called craniofacial dysostosis, is an autosomal dominant disorder with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Described by a French neurosurgeon in 1912, it is a rare genetic disorder characterized by premature closure of cranial sutures, midfacial hypoplasia, and orbital defects. Here, we report a case of this rare entity. The patient presented with brachycephaly, maxillary hypoplasia, exophthalmos, mandibular prognathism, along with dental and orbital abnormalities.

Plasma Acetylcholinesterase Activity Correlates with Intracerebral β-amyloid Load

Current Alzheimer Research. Jan, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23157337

Previous studies have demonstrated alterations in the peripheral cholinergic system in Alzheimer's disease (AD), though results have been inconsistent and not linked to in vivo biomarkers of pathology. We examined the relationship between amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and plasma cholinesterase activity in a heterogeneous dementia population.

Taurodontism

BMJ Case Reports. Apr, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23598931

Taurodontism leads to constriction of the cementoenamel junction, which results in vertically elongated pulp chambers, apical displacement of the pulpal floor, and bifurcation or trifurcation of the root. This trait can be seen in permanent and primary teeth, in a single tooth or in several molars in the same quadrant, and can be unilateral or bilateral. We report a rare case of a 26-year-old male patient presening with taurodontism involving all the developed molars of all four quadrants, which was not associated with any other anomalies or syndromes.

Treacher Collins Syndrome: a Case Report

BMJ Case Reports. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23709540

Treacher Collins syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development. The fully expressed phenotype exhibits characteristic dysmorphic features involving the face, eyes, mandible and ears. We report a case of a 17-year-old woman presenting with the typical orofacial implications of this syndrome.

Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma

BMJ Case Reports. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23729703

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a type of histiocytoma and is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of late adult life. However, it is relatively uncommon in the head and neck area. It usually occurs/develops in the lower extremities and in the retroperitonium. This tumour is difficult to distinguish histologically from other sarcomas and carcinomas. Surgery is the only treatment option. Prognosis is fairly poor; recurrence and local metastasis are common. In comparison with MFH of the extremities and the trunk, the 5-year survival rate for cases of this tumour in the head and neck is low. It is important to consider MFH in differential diagnosis of head and neck tumours because of its poor prognosis. We report a rare case of MFH in an 11-year-old girl.

Herpes Zoster

BMJ Case Reports. Jun, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23771975

Herpes zoster (HZ) or 'shingles' is a painful vesicular rash resulting from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus that also causes chickenpox. The incidence of HZ infection (HZI) increases with age and the degree of immunosuppresssion. Post herpetic neuralgia, the most common complication of HZ, occurs after the zoster rash has resolved. Conventional therapies include antivirals, corticosteroids and analgesics, both oral and topical. Here we report a case of HZ in an 80-year-old woman involving maxillary nerve and the article also reviews various treatment modalities available for the management of HZI.

Genetic and Neural Mechanisms That Inhibit Drosophila from Mating with Other Species

Cell. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23810192

Genetically hard-wired neural mechanisms must enforce behavioral reproductive isolation because interspecies courtship is rare even in sexually naïve animals of most species. We find that the chemoreceptor Gr32a inhibits male D. melanogaster from courting diverse fruit fly species. Gr32a recognizes nonvolatile aversive cues present on these reproductively dead-end targets, and activity of Gr32a neurons is necessary and sufficient to inhibit interspecies courtship. Male-specific Fruitless (Fru(M)), a master regulator of courtship, also inhibits interspecies courtship. Gr32a and Fru(M) are not coexpressed, but Fru(M) neurons contact Gr32a neurons, suggesting that these genes influence a shared neural circuit that inhibits interspecies courtship. Gr32a and Fru(M) also suppress within-species intermale courtship, but we show that distinct mechanisms preclude sexual displays toward conspecific males and other species. Although this chemosensory pathway does not inhibit interspecies mating in D. melanogaster females, similar mechanisms appear to inhibit this behavior in many other male drosophilids.

Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome: a Rare Case Report

BMJ Case Reports. Jun, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23814215

Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GS), also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an infrequent multisystem disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterised by keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographical examinations in the first decade of life, since the KCOTs are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This article describes an 11-year-old boy with GS.

Florid Osseous Dysplasia

BMJ Case Reports. Jun, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23814216

Florid osseous dysplasia (FOD) is the most dramatic and rare variant of the cemento-osseous lesions in which the normal cancellous bone is replaced by dense, acellular cemento-osseous tissue in a background of fibrous connective tissue. It appears to be a widespread form of periapical cemental dysplasia (PCD). No clear definition indicates that when the multiple lesions of PCD can be termed as FOD. If PCD is identified in three or four quadrants or is extensive in one jaw, then it is considered as FOD. Here, in this article, we report a case of FOD in 35-year-old woman.

Cherubism

BMJ Case Reports. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23833006

Acute Primary Herpetic Gingivostomatitis

BMJ Case Reports. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23839615

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a double-stranded virus belonging to human herpes virus family. Although it exists in eight various forms, HSV-1 causes most of the oral infections. Since dentists are more likely to be consulted in the case of oral infections, familiarity with these lesions becomes mandatory. It is more commonly reported in children and rarely in adults. This article presents an acute episode of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis in a 32-year-old male patient.

Internal Resorption

BMJ Case Reports. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23845670

Internal resorption is a relatively rare resorption of dentine, which starts in the pulpal cavity either in the pulpal chamber or in the root canal and destroys surrounding dental hard tissues. The initiating factor in internal root resorption is thought to be trauma or chronic pulpal inflammation, but other aetiological factors have also been suggested. The prognosis for treatment of small lesions of internal resorption is good. However, if the tooth structure is greatly weakened and perforation has occurred, the prognosis is poor and tooth extraction must be considered. In this article we report a rare case of internal resorption in a 26-year-old male patient.

Cementifying Fibroma

BMJ Case Reports. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23853018

Cementifying fibroma is considered as a benign, osseous tumour, which arises from the periodontal ligament and is composed of varying amounts of cementum, bone and fibrous tissue. It is very closely related to other fibro-osseous lesions like fibrous dysplasia, cemental periapical dysplasia and other calcifying odontogenic cysts and tumour. We report a case of this entity along with differentiating radiographic features that set it apart from other fibro-osseous lesions.

Epulis Fissuratum: Consequence of Ill-fitting Prosthesis

BMJ Case Reports. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23867882

A poorly fitted prosthesis can give rise to a plethora of problems like pain, discomfort in mastication and speech and epulis fissuratum. Epulis fissuratum refers to reactive tissue response to excessive mechanical pressure imparted by the poor fit of prosthesis. In this article, we discuss a case of epulis fissuratum in a 69-year-old male patient.

Central Giant Cell Granuloma: a Case Report

BMJ Case Reports. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23878288

Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a relatively uncommon benign bony lesion of a variably aggressive nature. Thought to represent a reparative response to intrabony haemorrhage and inflammation, CGCG was once regarded as a reactive lesion. It is actually an asymptomatic lesion which becomes evident during routine radiographic examination or as a result of painless but visible expansion of the affected jaw. This paper presents the case of a 4-year-old boy with  CGCG in the right mandibular region.

Bilateral Macrostomia

BMJ Case Reports. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23884979

Macrostomia as a rare facial deformity is classified among facial clefts. It is a rare congenital anomaly which affects the aesthetics and function of the oral cavity. It is usually associated with deformities of other structures developed from the first and second branchial arches. Bilateral transverse cleft occurring alone is uncommon. Here we report a case of bilateral macrostomia (bilateral lip cleft) in a 5-year-old girl as a sole entity without other skeletal and facial deformities.

Primary Oral Tuberculosis

BMJ Case Reports. Aug, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23907970

Persistent oral ulcers and erosions can be the final common manifestation, sometimes clinically distinguishable, of a diverse spectrum of conditions ranging from traumatic lesions, infectious diseases, systemic and local immune-mediated lesions up to neoplasms. A case with oral tuberculosis and absence of any systemic manifestations is reported. The location and clinical presentation of the lesion is unusual and underlines the importance of considering tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions that affect the mucosa and the gingiva.

Non-syndromic Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis

BMJ Case Reports. Sep, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24031070

Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a rare condition characterised by severe gingival hyperplasia that can occur as an isolated disease or as part of a syndrome or chromosomal abnormality. In severe cases, the gingival enlargement may cover the crowns of teeth and cause severe aesthetic, emotional and functional impairment. This case report gives an overview of gingival fibromatosis in a 22-year-old male patient who presented with generalised gingival enlargement.

Gemination

BMJ Case Reports. Nov, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24197807

Meteorological Influences on the Incidence of Lichen Planus in a North Indian Population

Journal of Oral Science. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24351919

Lichen planus is a chronic, autoimmune, mucocutaneous disease that shows differences in clinical presentation at different times of the year. The present retrospective study was conducted to clarify the meteorological factors that influence the incidence of lichen planus, as well as the general features and clinical presentation of this condition during three consecutive years, 2008, 2009, and 2010, in Moradabad district (Western Uttar Pradesh, India). The study group comprised 1,355 patients extracted from the records of the outpatient department of Kothiwal Dental College Research Centre and Hospital, who were clinically diagnosed as having lichen planus during this three-year period. The highest number of patients (735) were recorded in summer, and the lowest (56) in winter. Females were affected more often, and psychosocial influences were also evident. There were significant differences in the incidence of lichen planus in different seasons, and the summer peak was attributable to the intensity of sun exposure (actinic lichen planus and summertime lichen planus).

Hemimandibular Hypertrophy - Hybrid Variants: Report of Two Cases

Journal of Clinical Imaging Science. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24516768

Hemimandibular hypertrophy and its variants result from unilateral excessive growth of the mandible and involve both the body and ramus of mandible. This causes facial asymmetry and in turn accompanying psychological problems. In this report we discuss use of imaging in diagnosis of these lesions and investigate the different variants.

Supplemental Tooth in Primary Dentition

BMJ Case Reports. Jun, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24913075

An extra tooth causing numerical excess in dentition is described as supernumerary tooth, and the resultant condition is termed as hyperdontia. Hyperdontia is more commonly seen in the permanent dentition than primary one. Supernumerary tooth which resembles tooth shape and supplements for occlusion is called as supplemental tooth. We present a case with supplemental tooth in primary dentition.

A Multilocular Radiolucency of Mandible As the First Evidence of Multiple Myeloma: A Clinico-radiographic Case Report

Dental Research Journal. Mar, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24932201

The incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) affecting the jaws is 30% and on rare occasions the oral involvement can be the first indication of the disease. Authors report a case of MM in a 40-year-old woman who presented with a multilocular radiolucent lesion in the left mandible initially mistaken as an ameloblastoma. Conventional radiographs revealed a multilocular lesion on the molar region. Computed tomography (CT) and 3 dimensional CT revealed lytic, space occupying lesion perforating the inferior cortex. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a hypointense lesion on T1 weighted image and hyperintense lesion on T2 weighted image. Histopathological and lab investigations lead to the diagnosis of MM. MRI is superior in depicting the size of the lesion as compared to CT and conventional radiographs.

An Audit of Fresh Frozen Plasma Usage in a Tertiary Trauma Care Centre in North India

Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion : an Official Journal of Indian Society of Hematology and Blood Transfusion. Dec, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25435737

Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion is a crucial part of management of trauma patients. There is a paucity of literature about the audit of appropriateness of FFP use in trauma patients. To evaluate and analyze the appropriateness of FFP transfusion practices for trauma patients. Prospectively compiled blood bank records of FFP transfusion practices over a period of 4 months from Augusts'08 through Deember'08 were retrospectively analyzed for 207 patients. The number of FFP units used in all these trauma patients were evaluated a propos the cause of injury, departments, type of surgery, presence of coagulopathy, bleeding, massive transfusion, length of hospital stay and patient outcome. Trauma scores such as Glasgow coma score and injury severity score were also calculated to estimate the severity of injury. The appropriateness of FFP transfusion was assessed according to the guidelines drafted by the College of American Pathologists. FFP transfusion for patients experiencing active bleeding, micro vascular bleeding, coagulopathy and/or massive transfusion, was deemed appropriate. Patients receiving FFP were categorized and individually correlated with the outcome. The influences of other variables which affect patient outcome were excluded using stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis. p value < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. A total of 207 trauma patients were included in the study, 183 (88.4 %) males and 24 (11.6 %) females. The FFP use among neurosurgery patients was 46.9 %, general surgery patients 40.6 % and orthopedics 12.6 %. Appropriate use of FFP was 49.5 % according to the CAP guidelines. Trauma patients who required FFP as a part of treatment were categorized as; Patients who had bleeding alone (n = 40), bleeding with coagulopathy (n = 16), and coagulopathy alone (n = 43), and further correlated with the outcome and were found statistically insignificant. The prevalence of appropriate use of FFP at trauma centre was 49.5 %. The FFP use by neurosurgery:orthopedics:general surgery was 5:1:4. The highest appropriate FFP use was by Neurosurgery department (50.5 %). Assessing the pattern of usage and rate of misuse of FFP units, allows us to establish required strategies to improve the state of affairs.

The Radiological Versatility of Fibrous Dysplasia: An 8-year Retrospective Radiographic Analysis in a North Indian Population

Indian Journal of Dentistry. Jul, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25565743

The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and radiographic presentation of fibrous dysplasia through an 8-year retrospective study in patients who reported to the outpatient unit of the Kothiwal Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad.

A Combination of High Dose Rate (10X FFF/2400 MU/min/10 MV X-rays) and Total Low Dose (0.5 Gy) Induces a Higher Rate of Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells in Vitro and Superior Preservation of Normal Melanocytes

Melanoma Research. Oct, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26177150

The aim of this study was to determine the apoptotic effects, toxicity, and radiosensitization of total low dose irradiation delivered at a high dose rate in vitro to melanoma cells, normal human epidermal melanocytes (HEM), or normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and to study the effect of mitochondrial inhibition in combination with radiation to enhance apoptosis in melanoma cells. Cells irradiated using 10X flattening filter-free (FFF) 10 MV X-rays at a dose rate of 400 or 2400 MU/min and a total dose of 0.25-8 Gy were analyzed by cell/colony counting, MitoTracker, MTT, and DNA-damage assays, as well as by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR in the presence or absence of mitochondrial respiration inhibitors. A dose rate of 2400 MU/min killed on average five-fold more melanoma cells than a dose rate 400 MU/min at a total dose of 0.5 Gy and preserved 80% survival of HEM and 90% survival of HDF. Increased apoptosis at the 2400 MU/min dose rate is mediated by greater DNA damage, reduced cell proliferation, upregulation of apoptotic genes, and downregulation of cell cycle genes. HEM and HDF were relatively unharmed at 2400 MU/min. Radiation induced upregulation of mitochondrial respiration in both normal and cancer cells, and blocking the respiration with inhibitors enhanced apoptosis only in melanoma cells. A high dose rate with a low total dose (2400 MU/min, 0.5 Gy/10X FFF 10 MV X-rays) enhances radiosensitivity of melanoma cells while reducing radiotoxicity toward HEM and HDF. Selective cytotoxicity of melanoma cells is increased by blocking mitochondrial respiration.

Transmission of Barber-Say Syndrome from a Mosaic Father to His Child in an Indian Family

Clinical Dysmorphology. Oct, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27092433

Enhancement of Transcription by a Splicing-Competent Intron Is Dependent on Promoter Directionality

PLoS Genetics. May, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27152651

Enhancement of transcription by a splicing-competent intron is an evolutionarily conserved feature among eukaryotes. The molecular mechanism underlying the phenomenon, however, is not entirely clear. Here we show that the intron is an important regulator of promoter directionality. Employing strand-specific transcription run-on (TRO) analysis, we show that the transcription of mRNA is favored over the upstream anti-sense transcripts (uaRNA) initiating from the promoter in the presence of an intron. Mutation of either the 5' or 3' splice site resulted in the reversal of promoter directionality, thereby suggesting that it is not merely the 5' splice site but the entire splicing-competent intron that regulates transcription directionality. ChIP analysis revealed the recruitment of termination factors near the promoter region in the presence of an intron. Removal of intron or the mutation of splice sites adversely affected the promoter localization of termination factors. We have earlier demonstrated that the intron-mediated enhancement of transcription is dependent on gene looping. Here we show that gene looping is crucial for the recruitment of termination factors in the promoter-proximal region of an intron-containing gene. In a looping-defective mutant, despite normal splicing, the promoter occupancy of factors required for poly(A)-dependent termination of transcription was compromised. This was accompanied by a concomitant loss of transcription directionality. On the basis of these results, we propose that the intron-dependent gene looping places the terminator-bound factors in the vicinity of the promoter region for termination of the promoter-initiated upstream antisense transcription, thereby conferring promoter directionality.

Development and Molecular-genetic Characterization of a Stable Brassica Allohexaploid

TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27480156

We report first-time synthesis of a stable Brassica allohexaploid. It may evolve into a new species and also advance our understanding of pairing regulation and genome evolution in complex allopolyploids. Crop Brassicas include both monogenomic and digenomic species. A trigenomic Brassica (AABBCC) is not known to exist in nature. Past attempts to synthesize a stable allohexaploid were not successful due to aberrant meiosis and very high proportion of aneuploid plants in the selfed progenies. We report the development of a stable allohexaploid Brassica (2n = 54; AABBCC). Genomic in situ hybridization confirmed the complete assemblage of three genomes. Only allohexaploids involving B. rapa cv. R01 (2n = 20; AA) as pollinator with a set of B. carinata (2n = 34; BBCC) were stable. These exhibited a high proportion (0.78-0.94) of pollen mother cells with normal meiosis and an excellent hexaploid ratio (0.80-0.94) in the selfed progenies. Stability of two allohexaploid combinations was demonstrated from H1 to H4 generations at two very diverse locations in India. Graphical genotyping of allohexaploids allowed detection of chromosome fragment exchanges among three genomes. These were much smaller for meiotically stable allohexaploids as compared to unstable ones. The putative hexaploids were morphologically closer to the female donor, B. carinata, for leaf morphology, inflorescence structure and flower shape. The newly formed allohexaploid may also provide unique opportunities to investigate the immediate genetic and genomic consequences of a Brassica allohexaploid with three resident genomes.

A Cytochrome P450 3A4 Biosensor Based on Generation 4.0 PAMAM Dendrimers for the Detection of Caffeine

Biosensors. Aug, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27548239

Cytochromes P450 (CYP, P450) are a large family of heme-active-site proteins involved in many catalytic processes, including steroidogenesis. In humans, four primary enzymes are involved in the metabolism of almost all xenobiotics. Among these enzymes, CYP3A4 is responsible for the inactivation of the majority of used drugs which makes this enzyme an interesting target for many fields of research, especially pharmaceutical research. Since the late 1970s, attempts have been made to construct and develop electrochemical sensors for the determination of substrates. This paper is concerned with the establishment of such a CYP3A4-containing biosensor. The sensor was constructed by adsorption of alternating layers of sub-nanometer gold particle-modified PAMAM (poly-amido-amine) dendrimers of generation 4.0, along with the enzyme by a layer-by-layer assembly technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to elucidate the sensor assembly. Additionally, the biosensor was tested by cyclic voltammetry using caffeine as a substrate.

Clinical Trial Evaluating the Risk of Thromboembolic Events During Dental Extractions

Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Dec, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27833344

Discontinuation of anti-platelet therapy increases the risk of thrombotic complications whereas its continuation is believed to increase the risk of prolonged post-extraction bleeding. We therefore, performed this study to evaluate the risk of significant bleeding following dental extractions and also to assess the necessity of discontinuing anti-platelet therapy.

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