In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (11)

Articles by Nektarios Koukourakis in JoVE

Other articles by Nektarios Koukourakis on PubMed

Single-shot Holography for Depth Resolved Three Dimensional Imaging

Optics Express. Nov, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19997340

We introduce a method for depth-resolved photorefractive holographic imaging with potentially extremely short acquisition time for a complete three dimensional (3D) image. By combining the advantages of full-field frequency-domain optical coherence tomography with those of photorefractive holography our concept is capable of obtaining 3D information with only one single shot. We describe the operation principle of our concept and give a first experimental proof of principle.

Photorefractive Two-wave Mixing for Image Amplification in Digital Holography

Optics Express. Oct, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 22109051

We use photorefractive two-wave mixing for coherent amplification of the object beam in digital holographic recording. Both amplitude and phase reconstruction benefit from the prior amplification as they have an increased SNR. We experimentally verify that the amplification process does not affect the phase of the wavefield. This allows for digital holographic phase analysis after amplification. As the grating formation in photorefractive crystals is just driven by coherent light, the crystal works as a coherence gate. Thus the proposed combination allows for applying digital holography for imaging through scattering media, after the image bearing light is coherence gated and filtered out of scattered background. We show experimental proof-of principle results.

High-throughput Characterization of Film Thickness in Thin Film Materials Libraries by Digital Holographic Microscopy

Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. Oct, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 27877428

A high-throughput characterization technique based on digital holography for mapping film thickness in thin-film materials libraries was developed. Digital holographic microscopy is used for fully automatic measurements of the thickness of patterned films with nanometer resolution. The method has several significant advantages over conventional stylus profilometry: it is contactless and fast, substrate bending is compensated, and the experimental setup is simple. Patterned films prepared by different combinatorial thin-film approaches were characterized to investigate and demonstrate this method. The results show that this technique is valuable for the quick, reliable and high-throughput determination of the film thickness distribution in combinatorial materials research. Importantly, it can also be applied to thin films that have been structured by shadow masking.

Depth-filtered Digital Holography

Optics Express. Sep, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23037413

We introduce depth-filtered digital holography (DFDH) as a method for quantitative tomographic phase imaging of buried layers in multilayer samples. The procedure is based on the acquisition of multiple holograms for different wavelengths. Analyzing the intensity over wavelength pixel wise and using an inverse Fourier transform leads to a depth-profile of the multilayered sample. Applying a windowed Fourier transform with a narrow window, we choose a depth-of interest (DOI) which is used to synthesize filtered interference patterns that just contain information of this limited depth. We use the angular spectrum method to introduce an additional spatial filtering and to reconstruct the corresponding holograms. After a short theoretical framework we show experimental proof-of-principle results for the method.

Axial Scanning in Confocal Microscopy Employing Adaptive Lenses (CAL)

Optics Express. Mar, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24663938

In this paper we analyze the capability of adaptive lenses to replace mechanical axial scanning in confocal microscopy. The adaptive approach promises to achieve high scan rates in a rather simple implementation. This may open up new applications in biomedical imaging or surface analysis in micro- and nanoelectronics, where currently the axial scan rates and the flexibility at the scan process are the limiting factors. The results show that fast and adaptive axial scanning is possible using electrically tunable lenses but the performance degrades during the scan. This is due to defocus and spherical aberrations introduced to the system by tuning of the adaptive lens. These detune the observation plane away from the best focus which strongly deteriorates the axial resolution by a factor of ~2.4. Introducing balancing aberrations allows addressing these influences. The presented approach is based on the employment of a second adaptive lens, located in the detection path. It enables shifting the observation plane back to the best focus position and thus creating axial scans with homogeneous axial resolution. We present simulated and experimental proof-of-principle results.

Multiwavelength Phase Unwrapping and Aberration Correction Using Depth Filtered Digital Holography

Optics Letters. Jul, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25121676

In this Letter, we present a new approach to processing data from a standard spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using depth filtered digital holography (DFDH). Intensity-based OCT processing has an axial resolution of the order of a few micrometers. When the phase information is used to obtain optical path length differences, subwavelength accuracy can be achieved, but this limits the resolvable step heights to half of the wavelength of the system. Thus there is a metrology gap between phase- and intensity-based methods. Our concept addresses this metrology gap by combining DFHD with multiwavelength phase unwrapping. Additionally, the measurements are corrected for aberrations. Here, we present proof of concept measurements of a structured semiconductor sample.

On the Speckle Number of Interferometric Velocity and Distance Measurements of Moving Rough Surfaces

Optics Letters. Oct, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25360943

The minimum achievable systematic uncertainty of interferometric measurements is fundamentally limited due to speckle noise. Numerical and physical experiments, regarding the achievable measurement uncertainty of Mach-Zehnder based velocity and position sensors, are presented at the example of the laser Doppler distance sensor with phase evaluation. The results show that the measurement uncertainty depends on the number of speckles on the photo detectors. However, while the systematic uncertainty due to the speckle effect decreases, the random uncertainty due to noise from the photo detector increases with increasing speckle number. This results in a minimal total measurement uncertainty for an optimal speckle number on the photo detector, which is achieved by adjusting the aperture of the detection optics.

Optical Dynamic Deformation Measurements at Translucent Materials

Optics Letters. Feb, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25680138

Due to their high stiffness-to-weight ratio, glass fiber-reinforced polymers are an attractive material for rotors, e.g., in the aerospace industry. A fundamental understanding of the material behavior requires non-contact, in-situ dynamic deformation measurements. The high surface speeds and particularly the translucence of the material limit the usability of conventional optical measurement techniques. We demonstrate that the laser Doppler distance sensor provides a powerful and reliable tool for monitoring radial expansion at fast rotating translucent materials. We find that backscattering in material volume does not lead to secondary signals as surface scattering results in degradation of the measurement volume inside the translucent medium. This ensures that the acquired signal contains information of the rotor surface only, as long as the sample surface is rough enough. Dynamic deformation measurements of fast-rotating fiber-reinforced polymer composite rotors with surface speeds of more than 300 m/s underline the potential of the laser Doppler sensor.

Volumetric HiLo Microscopy Employing an Electrically Tunable Lens

Optics Express. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27410654

Electrically tunable lenses exhibit strong potential for fast motion-free axial scanning in a variety of microscopes. However, they also lead to a degradation of the achievable resolution because of aberrations and misalignment between illumination and detection optics that are induced by the scan itself. Additionally, the typically nonlinear relation between actuation voltage and axial displacement leads to over- or under-sampled frame acquisition in most microscopic techniques because of their static depth-of-field. To overcome these limitations, we present an Adaptive-Lens-High-and-Low-frequency (AL-HiLo) microscope that enables volumetric measurements employing an electrically tunable lens. By using speckle-patterned illumination, we ensure stability against aberrations of the electrically tunable lens. Its depth-of-field can be adjusted a-posteriori and hence enables to create flexible scans, which compensates for irregular axial measurement positions. The adaptive HiLo microscope provides an axial scanning range of 1 mm with an axial resolution of about 4 μm and sub-micron lateral resolution over the full scanning range. Proof of concept measurements at home-built specimens as well as zebrafish embryos with reporter gene-driven fluorescence in the thyroid gland are shown.

Transmission of Independent Signals Through a Multimode Fiber Using Digital Optical Phase Conjugation

Optics Express. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27410664

Multimode fibers are attractive for a variety of applications such as communication engineering and biophotonics. However, a major hurdle for the optical transmission through multimode fibers is the inherent mode mixing. Although an image transmission was successfully accomplished using wavefront shaping, the image information was not transmitted individually for each of the independent pixels. We demonstrate a transmission of independent signals using individually shaped wavefronts employing a single segmented spatial light modulator for optical phase conjugation regarding each light signal. Our findings pave the way towards transferring independent signals through strongly scattering media.

Wavefront Shaping for Imaging-based Flow Velocity Measurements Through Distortions Using a Fresnel Guide Star

Optics Express. Sep, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27661942

Imaging-based flow measurement techniques, like particle image velocimetry (PIV), are vulnerable to time-varying distortions like refractive index inhomogeneities or fluctuating phase boundaries. Such distortions strongly increase the velocity error, as the position assignment of the tracer particles and the decrease of image contrast exhibit significant uncertainties. We demonstrate that wavefront shaping based on spatially distributed guide stars has the potential to significantly reduce the measurement uncertainty. Proof of concept experiments show an improvement by more than one order of magnitude. Possible applications for the wavefront shaping PIV range from measurements in jets and film flows to biomedical applications.

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