Articles by Nicole M. Caesar in JoVE
High-resolution Time-lapse Imaging and Automated Analysis of Microtubule Dynamics in Living Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Alexander Braun1, Nicole M. Caesar1, Kyvan Dang1, Kenneth A. Myers1 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia Protocols for Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) culture, transient transfection of fluorescently-labeled markers of microtubule growth, live-cell imaging and automated analysis of interphase microtubule growth dynamics are detailed.
Other articles by Nicole M. Caesar on PubMed
Neisseria Meningitidis Serogroup B Vaccine Development Microbial Pathogenesis. Apr, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23416222 Neisseria meningitidis is an air-borne, gram-negative pathogen that actively invades its human host leading to the development of life-threatening pathologies. As one of the leading causes of death in the world, during an epidemic period N. meningitidis can be responsible for nearly 1000 new infections per 100,000 individuals. The bacterial species is further categorized into 13 serotypes, with five, A, B, C, W-135, and Y, being the most clinically relevant, causing the overwhelming majority of diseases. There are two contemporary, purified protein conjugate vaccines available that function by targeting serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. Historically, serogroup B has posed a vaccination challenge; however, there are currently two vaccines in development able to target serotype B. This review will highlight N. meningitidis as a pathogen and explore the recent literature providing a current review of meningococcal vaccination development.
Drosophila Muller F Elements Maintain a Distinct Set of Genomic Properties Over 40 Million Years of Evolution G3 (Bethesda, Md.). Mar, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25740935 The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have higher transposon density (25%-50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3%-11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% versus 11%-27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4-3.6 versus 8.4-8.8 genes per block), indicating higher rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu.