Articles by Niloofar Rezvani in JoVE
הדמיה של קולטן אסטרוגן α ב Arterioles Pial עכברוש באמצעות מיקרוסקופ דיגיטלי Immunofluorescent Niloofar Rezvani1, Andrei V. Blokhin1, Emil Zeynalov1, Marguerite T. Littleton-Kearney1 1Graduate School of Nursing, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences מטרת מאמר זה היא להדגים שיטה לייעל את זיהוי immunofluorescent של קולטן אסטרוגן α (ERα) על פרוסות עכברוש pial עורקים באמצעות מיקרוסקופ דיגיטלי immunofluorescent.
Other articles by Niloofar Rezvani on PubMed
Proinflammatory Cytokines Oppose Opioid-induced Acute and Chronic Analgesia Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18599265 Spinal proinflammatory cytokines are powerful pain-enhancing signals that contribute to pain following peripheral nerve injury (neuropathic pain). Recently, one proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1, was also implicated in the loss of analgesia upon repeated morphine exposure (tolerance). In contrast to prior literature, we demonstrate that the action of several spinal proinflammatory cytokines oppose systemic and intrathecal opioid analgesia, causing reduced pain suppression. In vitro morphine exposure of lumbar dorsal spinal cord caused significant increases in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release. Opposition of analgesia by proinflammatory cytokines is rapid, occurring < or =5 min after intrathecal (perispinal) opioid administration. We document that opposition of analgesia by proinflammatory cytokines cannot be accounted for by an alteration in spinal morphine concentrations. The acute anti-analgesic effects of proinflammatory cytokines occur in a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nitric oxide dependent fashion. Chronic intrathecal morphine or methadone significantly increased spinal glial activation (toll-like receptor 4 mRNA and protein) and the expression of multiple chemokines and cytokines, combined with development of analgesic tolerance and pain enhancement (hyperalgesia, allodynia). Statistical analysis demonstrated that a cluster of cytokines and chemokines was linked with pain-related behavioral changes. Moreover, blockade of spinal proinflammatory cytokines during a stringent morphine regimen previously associated with altered neuronal function also attenuated enhanced pain, supportive that proinflammatory cytokines are importantly involved in tolerance induced by such regimens. These data implicate multiple opioid-induced spinal proinflammatory cytokines in opposing both acute and chronic opioid analgesia, and provide a novel mechanism for the opposition of acute opioid analgesia.
Evidence That Opioids May Have Toll-like Receptor 4 and MD-2 Effects Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19679181 Opioid-induced proinflammatory glial activation modulates wide-ranging aspects of opioid pharmacology including: opposition of acute and chronic opioid analgesia, opioid analgesic tolerance, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, development of opioid dependence, opioid reward, and opioid respiratory depression. However, the mechanism(s) contributing to opioid-induced proinflammatory actions remains unresolved. The potential involvement of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was examined using in vitro, in vivo, and in silico techniques. Morphine non-stereoselectively induced TLR4 signaling in vitro, blocked by a classical TLR4 antagonist and non-stereoselectively by naloxone. Pharmacological blockade of TLR4 signaling in vivo potentiated acute intrathecal morphine analgesia, attenuated development of analgesic tolerance, hyperalgesia, and opioid withdrawal behaviors. TLR4 opposition to opioid actions was supported by morphine treatment of TLR4 knockout mice, which revealed a significant threefold leftward shift in the analgesia dose response function, versus wildtype mice. A range of structurally diverse clinically-employed opioid analgesics was found to be capable of activating TLR4 signaling in vitro. Selectivity in the response was identified since morphine-3-glucuronide, a morphine metabolite with no opioid receptor activity, displayed significant TLR4 activity, whilst the opioid receptor active metabolite, morphine-6-glucuronide, was devoid of such properties. In silico docking simulations revealed ligands bound preferentially to the LPS binding pocket of MD-2 rather than TLR4. An in silico to in vitro prediction model was built and tested with substantial accuracy. These data provide evidence that select opioids may non-stereoselectively influence TLR4 signaling and have behavioral consequences resulting, in part, via TLR4 signaling.
A Novel Method for Modeling Facial Allodynia Associated with Migraine in Awake and Freely Moving Rats Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19837113 Migraine is a neurovascular disorder that induces debilitating headaches associated with multiple symptoms including facial allodynia, characterized by heightened responsivity to normally innocuous mechanical stimuli. It is now well accepted that immune activation and immune-derived inflammatory mediators enhance pain responsivity, including the trigeminal system. Nociceptive ("pain" responsive) trigeminal nerves densely innervate the cranial meninges. We have recently proposed that the meninges may serve as a previously unidentified, key interface between the peripheral immune system and the CNS with potential implications for understanding underlying migraine mechanisms. Our focus here is the development of a model for facial allodynia associated with migraine. We developed a model wherein an indwelling catheter is placed between the skull and dura, allowing immunogenic stimuli to be administered over the dura in awake and freely moving rats. Since the catheter does not contact the brain itself, any proinflammatory cytokines induced following manipulation derive from resident or recruited meningeal immune cells. While surgery alone does not alter immune activation markers, TNF or IL6 mRNA and/or protein, it does decrease gene expression and increase protein expression of IL-1 at 4 days after surgery. Using this model we show the induction of facial allodynia in response to supradural administration of either the HIV glycoprotein gp120 or inflammatory soup (bradykinin, histamine, serotonin, and prostaglandin E2), and the induction of hindpaw allodynia in our model after inflammatory soup. This model allows time- and dose-dependent assessment of the relationship between changes in meningeal inflammation and corresponding exaggerated pain behaviors.