Articles by Okio Hino in JoVE
High-sensitivity Detection of Micrometastases Generated by GFP Lentivirus-transduced Organoids Cultured from a Patient-derived Colon Tumor Yu Okazawa1,2, Kosuke Mizukoshi1,2, Yu Koyama2,4, Shoki Okubo5, Hiromitsu Komiyama1, Yutaka Kojima1, Michitoshi Goto1, Sonoko Habu3, Okio Hino2, Kazuhiro Sakamoto1, Akira Orimo2 1Department of Coloproctological Surgery, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Molecular Pathogenesis, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 3Atopy Research Center, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 4Department of Oral Pathobiological Science and Surgery, Tokyo Dental College, 5Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine To allow highly sensitive detection of the disseminating human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells colonizing tissues, we herein show a protocol for efficient transduction of green fluorescent protein (GFP) lentiviral particles into PDX-derived CRC organoid cells prior to their injection into recipient mice, with stereo-fluorescence microscopic observation.
Other articles by Okio Hino on PubMed
Mourning Dr. Alfred G. Knudson: the Two-hit Hypothesis, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Cancer Science. | Pubmed ID: 27862655 On July 10, 2016, Alfred G. Knudson, Jr., MD, PhD, a leader in cancer research, died at the age of 93 years. We deeply mourn his loss. Knudson's two-hit hypothesis, published in 1971, has been fundamental for understanding tumor suppressor genes and familial tumor-predisposing syndromes. To understand the molecular mechanism of two-hit-initiated tumorigenesis, Knudson used an animal model of a dominantly inherited tumor, the Eker rat. From the molecular identification of Tsc2 germline mutations, the Eker rat became a model for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a familial tumor-predisposing syndrome. Animal models, including the fly, have greatly contributed to TSC research. Because the product of the TSC2/Tsc2 gene (tuberin) together with hamartin, the product of another TSC gene (TSC1/Tsc1), suppresses mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), rapalogs have been used as therapeutic drugs for TSC. Although significant activity of these drugs has been reported, there are still problems such as recurrence of residual tumors and adverse effects. Recent studies indicate that there are mTORC1-independent signaling pathways downstream of hamartin/tuberin, which may represent new therapeutic targets. The establishment of cellular models, such as pluripotent stem cells with TSC2/Tsc2 gene mutations, will facilitate the understanding of new aspects of TSC pathogenesis and the development of novel treatment options. In this review, we look back at the history of Knudson and animal models of TSC and introduce recent progress in TSC research.
Haploinsufficiency of the Folliculin Gene Leads to Impaired Functions of Lung Fibroblasts in Patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome Physiological Reports. | Pubmed ID: 27905298 Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder caused by germline mutations in the FLCN gene, and characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax, and renal neoplasms. Pulmonary manifestations frequently develop earlier than other organ involvements, prompting a diagnosis of BHDS However, the mechanism of lung cyst formation and pathogenesis of pneumothorax have not yet been clarified. Fibroblasts were isolated from lung tissues obtained from patients with BHDS (n = 12) and lung cancer (n = 10) as controls. The functional abilities of these lung fibroblasts were evaluated by the tests for chemotaxis to fibronectin and three-dimensional (3-D) gel contraction. Fibroblasts from BHDS patients showed diminished chemotaxis as compared with fibroblasts from controls. Expression of fibronectin and TGF-β1 was significantly reduced in BHDS fibroblasts when assessed by qPCR Addition of TGF-β1 in culture medium of BHDS lung fibroblasts significantly restored these cells' abilities of chemotaxis and gel contraction. Human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) exhibited reduced chemotaxis and 3-D gel contraction when FLCN expression was knocked down. To the contrary, a significant increase in chemotactic activity toward to fibronectin was demonstrated when wild-type FLCN was overexpressed, whereas transduction of mutant FLCN showed no effect on chemotaxis. Our results suggest that FLCN is associated with chemotaxis in lung fibroblasts. Together with reduced TGF-β1 expression by BHDS lung fibroblasts, a state of FLCN haploinsufficiency may cause lung fibroblast dysfunction, thereby impairing tissue repair. These may reveal one mechanism of lung cyst formation and pneumothorax in BHDS patients.