Articles by Pallavi R. Gangalum in JoVE
Polymalic Acid-based Nano Biopolymers for Targeting of Multiple Tumor Markers: An Opportunity for Personalized Medicine? Julia Y. Ljubimova1, Hui Ding1, Jose Portilla-Arias1, Rameshwar Patil1, Pallavi R. Gangalum1, Alexandra Chesnokova1, Satoshi Inoue1, Arthur Rekechenetskiy1, Tala Nassoura1, Keith L. Black1, Eggehard Holler1 1Nanomedicine Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center An example of a nano drug based on polymalic acid is presented towards the rational design of personalized medicine that is applicable to cancer. It describes the synthesis of a nano drug to treat Her2-positive human breast cancer in a nude mouse.
Other articles by Pallavi R. Gangalum on PubMed
Dicer Insufficiency and MicroRNA-155 Overexpression in Lupus Regulatory T Cells: an Apparent Paradox in the Setting of an Inflammatory Milieu Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21149603 Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by loss of tolerance to self-Ags and activation of autoreactive T cells. Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a critical role in controlling the activation of autoreactive T cells. In this study, we investigated mechanisms of potential Treg cell defects in systemic lupus erythematosus using MRL-Fas(lpr/lpr) (MRL/lpr) and MRL-Fas(+/+) mouse models. We found a significant increase in CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells, albeit with an altered phenotype (CD62L(-)CD69(+)) and with a reduced suppressive capacity, in the lymphoid organs of MRL strains compared with non-autoimmune C3H/HeOuj mice. A search for mechanisms underlying the altered Treg cell phenotype in MRL/lpr mice led us to find a profound reduction in Dicer expression and an altered microRNA (miRNA, miR) profile in MRL/lpr Treg cells. Despite having a reduced level of Dicer, MRL/lpr Treg cells exhibited a significant overexpression of several miRNAs, including let-7a, let-7f, miR-16, miR-23a, miR-23b, miR-27a, and miR-155. Using computational approaches, we identified one of the upregulated miRNAs, miR-155, that can target CD62L and may thus confer the altered Treg cell phenotype in MRL/lpr mice. In fact, the induced overexpression of miR-155 in otherwise normal (C3H/HeOuj) Treg cells reduced their CD62L expression, which mimics the altered Treg cell phenotype in MRL/lpr mice. These data suggest a role of Dicer and miR-155 in regulating Treg cell phenotype. Furthermore, simultaneous appearance of Dicer insufficiency and miR-155 overexpression in diseased mice suggests a Dicer-independent alternative mechanism of miRNA regulation under inflammatory conditions.
Toxicity and Efficacy Evaluation of Multiple Targeted Polymalic Acid Conjugates for Triple-negative Breast Cancer Treatment Journal of Drug Targeting. Dec, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24032759 Engineered nanoparticles are widely used for delivery of drugs but frequently lack proof of safety for cancer patient's treatment. All-in-one covalent nanodrugs of the third generation have been synthesized based on a poly(β-L-malic acid) (PMLA) platform, targeting human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). They significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice by blocking synthesis of epidermal growth factor receptor, and α4 and β1 chains of laminin-411, the tumor vascular wall protein and angiogenesis marker. PMLA and nanodrug biocompatibility and toxicity at low and high dosages were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The dual-action nanodrug and single-action precursor nanoconjugates were assessed under in vitro conditions and in vivo with multiple treatment regimens (6 and 12 treatments). The monitoring of TNBC treatment in vivo with different drugs included blood hematologic and immunologic analysis after multiple intravenous administrations. The present study demonstrates that the dual-action nanoconjugate is highly effective in preclinical TNBC treatment without side effects, supported by hematologic and immunologic assays data. PMLA-based nanodrugs of the Polycefin™ family passed multiple toxicity and efficacy tests in vitro and in vivo on preclinical level and may prove to be optimized and efficacious for the treatment of cancer patients in the future.
Near-infrared Imaging of Brain Tumors Using the Tumor Paint BLZ-100 to Achieve Near-complete Resection of Brain Tumors Neurosurgical Focus. Feb, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24484247 The intraoperative clear delineation between brain tumor and normal tissue in real time is required to ensure near-complete resection without damaging the nearby eloquent brain. Tumor Paint BLZ-100, a tumor ligand chlorotoxin (CTX) conjugated to indocyanine green (ICG), has shown potential to be a targeted contrast agent. There are many infrared imaging systems in use, but they are not optimized to the low concentration and amount of ICG. The authors present a novel proof-of-concept near-infrared (NIR) imaging system using a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera for visualizing low levels of ICG attached to the tumors. This system is small, inexpensive, and sensitive. The imaging system uses a narrow-band laser at 785 nm and a notch filter in front of the sensor at the band. The camera is a 2-CCD camera, which uses identical CCDs for both visible and NIR light.