Articles by Paul J. Austin in JoVE
Chronic Constriction of the Sciatic Nerve and Pain Hypersensitivity Testing in Rats Paul J. Austin1, Ann Wu1, Gila Moalem-Taylor1 1School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales Due to the simplicity of surgery and the robust behavioural outcome, chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve is one of the pre-eminent animal models of neuropathic pain. Within 24 hrs following surgery, pain hypersensitivity is established and can be quantitatively measured using a von Frey aesthesiometer (mechanical test) and plantar analgesia meter (thermal test).
Other articles by Paul J. Austin on PubMed
The Neuro-immune Balance in Neuropathic Pain: Involvement of Inflammatory Immune Cells, Immune-like Glial Cells and Cytokines Journal of Neuroimmunology. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20870295 In a large proportion of individuals nervous system damage may lead to a debilitating chronic neuropathic pain. Such pain may now be considered a neuro-immune disorder, since recent data indicate a critical involvement of innate and adaptive immune responses following nerve injury. Activation of immune and immune-like glial cells in the injured nerve, dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord results in the release of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as algesic and analgesic mediators, the balance of which determines whether pain chronicity is established. This review will critically examine the role of the immune system in modulating chronic pain in animal models of nervous system injury, and highlight the possible therapeutic opportunities to intervene in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain.
Evidence for Cellular Injury in the Midbrain of Rats Following Chronic Constriction Injury of the Sciatic Nerve Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21291996 Complex behavioural disabilities, as well as pain, characterise neuropathic pain conditions for which clinical treatment is sought. In rats, chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve evokes, allodynia and hyperalgesia as well as three distinct patterns of disability, characterised by changes in social and sleep-wake behaviours: (i) Pain & Disability; (ii) Pain & Transient Disability and (iii) Pain alone. Importantly, the degree of allodynia and hyperalgesia is identical for each of these groups. Social-interactions and sleep-wake behaviours are regulated by neural networks, which converge on the periaqueductal grey (PAG). Rats with Pain & Disability show astrocyte activation restricted to the lateral and ventrolateral PAG. Reactive astrocytes are a hallmark of cell death (apoptosis and necrosis). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR for the mRNAs encoding Bax, Bcl-2, heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), mitogen activated kinase kinase (MEK2) and iNOS was performed on the dorsal midbrains of individual, disability characterised rats, extending our earlier Gene-Chip data, showing a select up-regulation of Bax and MEK2 mRNA, and a down-regulation of HSP60 mRNA, in Pain & Disability rats. The anatomical location of TUNEL and cleaved-caspase-3 immunoreactive profiles in the midbrain was also identified. Rats with Pain & Disability showed: (i) pro-apoptotic ratios of Bax:Bcl-2 mRNAs; (ii) decreased HSP60 mRNA; (iii) increased iNOS and MEK2 mRNAs; (iv) TUNEL-positive profiles in the lateral and ventrolateral PAG; and (v) caspase-3 immunoreactive neurons in the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. Cell death in these specific midbrain regions may underlie the disabilities characterising this subgroup of nerve-injured rats.