In JoVE (2)
Other Publications (9)
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
- BioFactors (Oxford, England)
- Stem Cells and Development
- Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
- Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
- Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
- Stem Cells International
- Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Articles by Peter Szaraz in JoVE
In Vitro Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Functional Cardiomyocyte-like Cells Peter Szaraz*1,2, Yarden S. Gratch*1, Farwah Iqbal1,2, Clifford L. Librach1,2,3,4,5 1Create Fertility Centre, 2Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, 4Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, 5 Here, we present a method to efficiently harness the cardiac differentiation potential of young sources of human mesenchymal stem cells in order to generate functional, contracting, cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro.
The Aortic Ring Co-culture Assay: A Convenient Tool to Assess the Angiogenic Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In Vitro Farwah Iqbal1,2, Yarden S. Gratch1, Peter Szaraz1,2, Clifford L. Librach1,2,3,4,5 1Create Fertility Centre, 2Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, 4Department of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 5 Here, we present a novel application of the aortic ring assay where prelabelled mesenchymal cells are co-cultured with rat aorta-derived endothelial networks. This novel method allows visualization of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) homing and integration with endothelial networks, quantification of network properties, and evaluation of MSC immunophenotypes and gene expression.
Other articles by Peter Szaraz on PubMed
Changes of Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Complexes, Redox State, and Impaired Protein Disulfide Reductase Activity in Misfolding Alpha1-antitrypsin Transgenic Mice FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16571774 Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is characterized by the accumulation of the misfolded mutant, Z form of alpha1-antitrypsin (PiZ) inside the lumen of the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Both human patients and PiZ transgenic mice have similar symptoms of hepatic failure culminating in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The involvement of molecular chaperones, as well as the relevance of oxidative stress in this disease is not characterized well yet. Here, we show that, in the PiZ transgenic mice, the 58-kDa protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), the most important oxidoreductase and chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum, is in a complex with PiZ, which is accompanied by a decrease of protein disulfide reductase activity of the ER. PiZ transgenic mice have a shift toward a more reduced ER environment and an elevation of cytoplasmic chaperones and antioxidant enzymes. Our data suggest that lower availability of PDI and a decreased protein disulfide reductase activity of the ER along with a cytoplasmic stress may contribute to the toxic effects of PiZ aggregation.
Altered Redox State of Luminal Pyridine Nucleotides Facilitates the Sensitivity Towards Oxidative Injury and Leads to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Dependent Autophagy in HepG2 Cells The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19819344 Maintenance of the reduced state of luminal pyridine nucleotides in the endoplasmic reticulum - an important pro-survival factor in the cell - is ensured by the concerted action of glucose-6-phosphate transporter and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The mechanism by which the redox imbalance leads to cell death was investigated in HepG2 cells. The chemical inhibition of the glucose-6-phosphate transporter, the silencing of hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and/or the glucose-6-phosphate transporter, or the oxidation of luminal NADPH by themselves did not cause a significant loss of cell viability. However, these treatments caused ER calcium store depletion. If these treatments were supplemented with the administration of a subliminal dose of the oxidizing agent menadione, endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and a loss of viability were observed. Combined treatments resulted in the activation of ATF6 and procaspase-4, and in the induction of Grp78 and CHOP. In spite of the presence of UPR markers and proapoptotic signaling the effector caspases - caspase-3 and caspase-7 - were not active. On the other hand, an elevation of the autophagy marker LC3B was observed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a punctuated distribution of LC3B II, coinciding with the vacuolization of the endoplasmic reticulum. The results suggest that altered redox state of endoplasmic reticulum luminal pyridine nucleotides sensitizes the cell to autophagy.
Inhibition of Glycoprotein Synthesis in the Endoplasmic Reticulum As a Novel Anticancer Mechanism of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate BioFactors (Oxford, England). Nov-Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22162335 (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been found to trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR) likely due to the inhibition of glucosidase II, a key enzyme of glycoprotein processing and quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These findings strongly suggest that EGCG interferes with glycoprotein maturation and sorting in the ER. This hypothesis was tested in SK-Mel28 human melanoma cells by assessing the effect of EGCG and deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) on the synthesis of two endogenous glycoproteins. Both tyrosinase and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were remarkably reduced despite unaltered mRNA expression in EGCG- or DNJ-treated cells compared to control. The hindrance of tyrosinase and VEGF protein synthesis could be prevented by proteasome inhibitor, lactacystine. Collectively, our results support that glucosidase II inhibitor EGCG interferes with protein processing and quality control in the ER, which diverts tyrosinase, VEGF, and likely other glycoproteins towards proteasomal degradation. This mechanism provides a novel therapeutic approach in dermatology and might play an important role in the antitumor effect or hepatotoxicity of EGCG.
Ontogeny of Human Umbilical Cord Perivascular Cells: Molecular and Fate Potential Changes During Gestation Stem Cells and Development. Sep, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23557155 Human umbilical cord-derived perivascular cells (PVCs) are a recently characterized source of mesenchymal stromal cells that has gained much interest in the field of cellular therapeutics. However, very little is known about the changes in fate potential and restrictions that these cells undergo during gestational development. This study is the first to examine the phenotypic, molecular, and functional properties of first trimester (FTM)-derived PVCs, outlining properties that are unique to this population when compared to term (TERM) counterparts. FTM- and TERM-PVCs displayed analogous mesenchymal, perivascular, and immunological immunophenotypes. Both PVCs could be maintained in culture without alteration to these phenotypes or mesenchymal lineage differentiation potential. Some unique features of FTM-PVCs were uncovered in this study: (1) while the gene signatures of FTM- and TERM-PVCs were similar, key differences were observed, namely, that the Oct4A and Sox17 proteins were detected in FTM-PVCs, but not in TERM counterparts; (2) FTM-PVCs exhibited a greater proliferative potential; and (3) FTM-PVCs were more efficient in their in vitro differentiation toward selective mesenchymal cell types, including the chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages, as well as toward neuronal- and hepatocyte-like lineages, when compared to TERM-PVCs. Both PVCs were able to generate osteocytes and cardiomyocyte-like cells with similar efficiencies in vitro. Overall, FTM-PVCs show more plasticity than TERM-PVCs with regard to fate acquisition, suggesting that a restriction in multipotentiality is imposed on PVCs as gestation progresses. Taken together, our findings support the idea that PVCs from earlier in gestation may be better than later sources of multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) for some regenerative medicine applications.
Transient Knockdown of Presenilin-1 Provokes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Related Formation of Autophagosomes in HepG2 Cells Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Oct, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23942054 The involvement of presenilins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) related autophagy was investigated by their transient knockdown in HepG2 cells. The silencing of PSEN1 but not of PSEN2 led to cell growth impairment and decreased viability. PSEN1 silencing resulted in ER stress response as evidenced by the elevated levels of glucose regulated protein 78 (Grp78), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and by the activation of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). The activation of autophagy was indicated by the increased procession of microtubule-associated light chain 3 protein isoform B (LC3B) and by decreased phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 70kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K). Formation of ER-related cytoplasmic vacuolization colocalizing with the autophagic marker LC3B was also observed. The morphological effects and LC3B activation in presenilin-1 knockdown cells could be prevented by using the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin or by calcium chelation. The results show that presenilin-1 hampers the ER stress dependent initiation of macroautophagy.
Calreticulin Affects Cell Adhesiveness Through Differential Phosphorylation of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters. Mar, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24470116 Cellular adhesion to the underlying substratum is regulated through numerous signaling pathways. It has been suggested that insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is involved in some of these pathways, via association with and activation of transmembrane integrins. Calreticulin, as an important endoplasmic reticulum-resident, calcium-binding protein with a chaperone function, plays an obvious role in proteomic expression. Our previous work showed that calreticulin mediates cell adhesion not only by affecting protein expression but also by affecting the state of regulatory protein phosphorylation, such as that of c-src. Here, we demonstrate that calreticulin affects the abundance of IRS-1 such that the absence of calreticulin is paralleled by a decrease in IRS-1 levels and the unregulated overexpression of calreticulin is accompanied by an increase in IRS-1 levels. These changes in the abundance of calreticulin and IRS-1 are accompanied by changes in cell-substratum adhesiveness and phosphorylation, such that increases in the expression of calreticulin and IRS-1 are paralleled by an increase in focal contact-based cell-substratum adhesiveness, and a decrease in the expression of these proteins brings about a decrease in cell-substratum adhesiveness. Wild type and calreticulin-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were cultured and the IRS-1 isoform profile was assessed. Differences in morphology and motility were also quantified. While no substantial differences in the speed of locomotion were found, the directionality of cell movement was greatly promoted by the presence of calreticulin. Calreticulin expression was also found to have a dramatic effect on the phosphorylation state of serine 636 of IRS-1, such that phosphorylation of IRS-1 on serine 636 increased radically in the absence of calreticulin. Most importantly, treatment of cells with the RhoA/ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, which among its many effects also inhibited serine 636 phosphorylation of IRS-1, had profound effects on cell-substratum adhesion, in that it suppressed focal contacts, induced extensive close contacts, and increased the strength of adhesion. The latter effect, while counterintuitive, can be explained by the close contacts comprising labile bonds but in large numbers. In addition, the lability of bonds in close contacts would permit fast locomotion. An interesting and novel finding is that Y-27632 treatment of MEFs releases them from contact inhibition of locomotion, as evidenced by the invasion of a cell's underside by the thin lamellae and filopodia of a cell in close apposition.
On the Role of 4-hydroxynonenal in Health and Disease Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. May, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25643868 Polyunsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to peroxidation and they yield various degradation products, including the main α,β-unsaturated hydroxyalkenal, 4-hydroxy-2,3-trans-nonenal (HNE) in oxidative stress. Due to its high reactivity, HNE interacts with various macromolecules of the cell, and this general toxicity clearly contributes to a wide variety of pathological conditions. In addition, growing evidence suggests a more specific function of HNE in electrophilic signaling as a second messenger of oxidative/electrophilic stress. It can induce antioxidant defense mechanisms to restrain its own production and to enhance the cellular protection against oxidative stress. Moreover, HNE-mediated signaling can largely influence the fate of the cell through modulating major cellular processes, such as autophagy, proliferation and apoptosis. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms underlying the signaling and regulatory functions of HNE. The role of HNE in the pathophysiology of cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases is also discussed.
In Vitro Differentiation of First Trimester Human Umbilical Cord Perivascular Cells into Contracting Cardiomyocyte-Like Cells Stem Cells International. 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27123009 Myocardial infarction (MI) causes an extensive loss of heart muscle cells and leads to congestive heart disease (CAD), the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mesenchymal stromal cell- (MSC-) based cell therapy is a promising option to replace invasive interventions. However the optimal cell type providing significant cardiac regeneration after MI is yet to be found. The aim of our study was to investigate the cardiomyogenic differentiation potential of first trimester human umbilical cord perivascular cells (FTM HUCPVCs), a novel, young source of immunoprivileged mesenchymal stromal cells. Based on the expression of cardiomyocyte markers (cTnT, MYH6, SIRPA, and CX43) FTM and term HUCPVCs achieved significantly increased cardiomyogenic differentiation compared to bone marrow MSCs, while their immunogenicity remained significantly lower as indicated by HLA-A and HLA-G expression and susceptibility to T cell mediated cytotoxicity. When applying aggregate-based differentiation, FTM HUCPVCs showed increased aggregate formation potential and generated contracting cells within 1 week of coculture, making them the first MSC type with this ability. Our results indicate that young FTM HUCPVCs have superior cardiomyogenic potential coupled with beneficial immunogenic properties when compared to MSCs of older tissue sources, suggesting that in vitro predifferentiation could be a potential strategy to increase their effectiveness in vivo.
Angiogenic Potency Evaluation of Cell Therapy Candidates by a Novel Application of the in Vitro Aortic Ring Assay Stem Cell Research & Therapy. Aug, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28807010 Due to limitations of current angiogenesis assays, we aimed to develop a novel application of the rat aortic ring assay to assess the angiogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). First-trimester human umbilical cord-derived perivascular cells (FTM HUCPVCs) have multipotent characteristics and previously demonstrated angiogenic potential. We compared the effect of this young source of MSCs and adult bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on ex vivo aortic endothelial network formation.