In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (99)

Articles by Pradeep K. Dudeja in JoVE

Other articles by Pradeep K. Dudeja on PubMed

Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of the Human Na(+)/H(+) Exchanger NHE3 Promoter

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Mar, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 11841999

Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) isoforms NHE2 and NHE3, colocalized to the brush border membrane of the epithelial cells, exhibit differences in their pattern of tissue expression and regulation by various molecular signals. To investigate the mechanisms involved in regulation of NHE3 gene expression, the human NHE3 promoter region was cloned and characterized. Primer extension experiments located the transcription start site to a position 116 nucleotides upstream from the translation start codon. The 5'-flanking region lacked a CCAAT box but contained a TATA-like sequence. Nucleotide sequencing of the 5'-flanking region revealed the presence of a number of cis elements including Sp1, AP-2, MZF-1, CdxA, Cdx-2, steroid and nonsteroid hormone receptor half sites, and a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-response element. Transient transfection experiments using C2/bbe cell line defined a maximal promoter activity in -95/+5 region. The regulatory response elements clustered within this region include a potential transcription factor IID (TF IID), a CACCC, two Sp1, and two AP-2 motifs. Deletion of a fragment containing the AP-2 and Sp1 motifs resulted in a drastic decrease in promoter activity. In gel mobility shift assays, an oligonucleotide spanning from -78 to -56 bp bound a recombinant AP-2, and the corresponding binding activity in nuclear extracts was supershifted with anti-AP2alpha antibody. Our studies suggest that the NHE3 expression is regulated by a combination of cis elements and their cognate transcription factors that include the AP-2 and Sp1 family members.

Expression and Promoter Analysis of SLC19A2 in the Human Intestine

Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Apr, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 11997118

The molecular mechanism and regulation of the intestinal uptake process of dietary thiamine is not well understood. Previous studies have established the involvement of a carrier-mediated system for thiamine uptake in the human intestine. Recently a human thiamine transporter, SLC19A2, was cloned from a number of human tissues. Little, however, is known about expression of the SLC19A2 message along the native human gastrointestinal tract, and no analysis of its promoter in intestinal tissue is available. Therefore, the current studies were aimed at investigating the expression of SLC19A2 in the human gastrointestinal tract and at analyzing the promoter of this potential intestinal thiamine transporter. First we cloned SLC19A2 cDNA from a human intestinal cell line (Caco-2) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, then used this cDNA as a probe in Northern blot analysis. SLC19A2 message was found to be expressed in all gastrointestinal tissues in the following order: liver>stomach>duodenum>jejunum>colon>cecum>rectum>ileum. SLC19A2 was also expressed at the protein level in Caco-2 cells and in native human small intestine by Western blot analysis. We also cloned the 5'-regulatory region of the SLC19A2 gene and confirmed activity of its promoter following transfection into intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, we identified the minimal promoter region required for basal activity of SLC19A2 in these cells which was found to be mainly encoded in a sequence between -356 and -36, and included multiple cis-regulatory elements. Transcription initiation sites of the SLC19A2 gene in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were also identified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. These results demonstrate that SLC19A2 is expressed in various regions of the human gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the results provide the first characterization of the SLC19A2 promoter. These findings raise the possibility that SLC19A2 may play a role in the normal intestinal thiamine absorption process.

Modulation of Cl-/OH- Exchange Activity in Caco-2 Cells by Nitric Oxide

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Sep, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12181176

The present studies were undertaken to determine the direct effects of nitric oxide (NO) released from an exogenous donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl pencillamine (SNAP) on Cl-/OH- exchange activity in human Caco-2 cells. Our results demonstrate that NO inhibits Cl-/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells via cGMP-dependent protein kinases G (PKG) and C (PKC) signal-transduction pathways. Our data in support of this conclusion can be outlined as follows: 1) incubation of Caco-2 cells with SNAP (500 microM) for 30 min resulted in approximately 50% inhibition of DIDS-sensitive 36Cl uptake; 2) soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitors Ly-83583 and (1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one significantly blocked the inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange activity by SNAP; 3) addition of 8-bromo-cGMP (8-BrcGMP) mimicked the effects of SNAP; 4) specific PKG inhibitor KT-5823 significantly inhibited the decrease in Cl-/OH- exchange activity in response to either SNAP or 8-BrcGMP; 5) Cl-/OH-exchange activity in Caco-2 cells in response to SNAP was not altered in the presence of protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (Rp-cAMPS), demonstrating that the PKA pathway was not involved; 6) the effect of NO on Cl-/OH- exchange activity was mediated by PKC, because each of the two PKC inhibitors chelerythrine chloride and calphostin C blocked the SNAP-mediated inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange activity; 7) SO/OH- exchange in Caco-2 cells was unaffected by SNAP. Our results suggest that NO-induced inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange may play an important role in the pathophysiology of diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel diseases.

Regulation of NHE3 by Nitric Oxide in Caco-2 Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Sep, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12181191

The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) activity was investigated utilizing Caco-2 cells as an experimental model. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with 10(-3) M S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a conventional donor of NO, for 20 min resulted in a approximately 45% dose-dependent decrease in NHE activity, as determined by assay of ethylisopropylamiloride-sensitive 22Na uptake. A similar decrease in NHE activity was observed utilizing another NO-specific donor, sodium nitroprusside. SNAP-mediated inhibition of NHE activity was not secondary to a loss of cell viability. NHE3 activity was significantly reduced by SNAP (P < 0.05), whereas NHE2 activity was essentially unaltered. The effects of SNAP were mediated by the cGMP-dependent signal transduction pathway as follows: 1) LY-83583 and 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), specific inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase, blocked the inhibitory effect of SNAP on NHE; 2) 8-bromo-cGMP mimicked the effects of SNAP on NHE activity; 3) the SNAP-induced decrease in NHE activity was counteracted by a specific protein kinase G inhibitor, KT-5823 (1 microM); 4) chelerythrine chloride (2 microM) or calphostin C (200 nM), specific protein kinase C inhibitors, did not affect inhibition of NHE activity by SNAP; 5) there was no cross activation by the protein kinase A-dependent pathway, as the inhibitory effects of SNAP were not blocked by Rp-cAMPS (25 microM), a specific protein kinase A inhibitor. These data provide novel evidence that NO inhibits NHE3 activity via activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, resulting in an increase in intracellular cGMP levels and activation of protein kinase G.

Inhibition of Apical Cl-/OH- Exchange Activity in Caco-2 Cells by Phorbol Esters is Mediated by PKCepsilon

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Nov, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12372810

The present studies were undertaken to examine the possible regulation of apical membrane Cl-/OH- exchanger in Caco-2 cells by protein kinase C (PKC). The effect of the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an in vitro PKC agonist, on OH- gradient-driven 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive 36Cl uptake in Caco-2 cells was assessed. The results demonstrated that PMA decreased apical Cl-/OH- exchanger activity via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-mediated activation of PKCepsilon. The data consistent with these conclusions are as follows: 1) short-term treatment of cells for 1-2 h with PMA (100 nM) significantly decreased Cl-/OH- exchange activity compared with control (4alpha-PMA); 2) pretreatment of cells with specific PKC inhibitors chelerythrine chloride, calphostin C, and GF-109203X completely blocked the inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange activity by PMA; 3) specific inhibitors for PKCepsilon (Ro-318220) but not PKCalpha (Go-6976) significantly blocked the PMA-mediated inhibition; 4) specific PI3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY-294002 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of PMA; and 5) PI3-kinase activators IRS-1 peptide and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] mimicked the effects of PMA. These findings provide the first evidence for PKCepsilon-mediated inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells and indicate the involvement of the PI3-kinase-mediated pathways in the regulation of Cl- absorption in intestinal epithelial cells.

Mechanisms of Calcium Transport in Human Colonic Basolateral Membrane Vesicles

Digestive Diseases and Sciences. Oct, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12395904

Human colon has been suggested to play an important role in calcium absorption especially after extensive disease or resection of the small intestine. We have previously demonstrated the presence of a carrier-mediated calcium uptake mechanism in the human colonic luminal membrane vesicles. Current studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate the mechanism(s) of calcium exit across the basolateral membrane domain of the human colon. Human colonic basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMVs) were isolated and purified from mucosal scrapings of organ donor colons, utilizing a technique developed in our laboratory. 45Ca uptake was measured by a rapid filtration technique. 45Ca uptake represented transport into the intravesicular space as evidenced by an osmolarity study and by the demonstration of Ca2' efflux from calcium preloaded vesicles by Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Calcium uptake was stimulated by Mg2+ ATP. The kinetic parameters for ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake revealed saturation kinetics with Michaelis constant (Km) of 0.22 +/- 0.04 microM and a maximum rate of uptake (Vmax) of 0.38 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein/min. The Km of ATP concentration required for half maximal Ca2+ uptake was 0.39 +/- 0.04 mM. ATP-stimulated calcium uptake into these vesicles was further stimulated in the presence of calmodulin and was inhibited by calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine. Uptake of 45Ca into BLMVs was markedly inhibited by cis-Na+ but was significantly stimulated by trans-Na+ (40-50% stimulation). Our results demonstrate the presence of a Mg2+/ATP-dependent calmodulin-regulated Ca2+ transport system and a Na+-Ca2+ exchange process in the human colonic basolateral membranes.

Evidence for a Carrier-mediated Mechanism for Thiamine Transport to Human Jejunal Basolateral Membrane Vesicles

Digestive Diseases and Sciences. Jan, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12645798

Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated the presence of a pH-dependent, amiloride-sensitive, electroneutral carrier-mediated exchange for thiamine absorption in the human small intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles. However, the mechanism of thiamine transport across the human small intestinal basolateral membrane is not understood. The present study was aimed to characterize the mechanism of thiamine transport across the basolateral membranes of the human jejunum. Basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) were purified from mucosal scrapings of organ donors, utilizing a Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation technique. The results showed [3H] thiamine uptake into BLMV to be: (1) markedly stimulated in the presence of an outwardly directed H+ gradient (pH 5.5in/7.5out); (2) significantly inhibited by amiloride in a dose-dependent manner; (3) sensitive to temperature and medium osmolarity and insensitive to changes in membrane potential; (4) not influenced by the addition of 1 mM Mg(2+)-ATP, inside and outside the vesicles in the presence of Na+ and K+; (5) inhibited by structural analogs-amprolium, oxythiamin, and unlabeled thiamine (100 microM); (6) not affected by organic cations, eg, TEA, N-methyl-nicotinamide (NMN), and choline; and (7) saturable as a function of concentration (apparent Km of 0.76 +/- 0.21 microM and a V(max) of 1.38 +/- 0.35 pmol/mg protein/10 sec). These results indicate the presence of a proton gradient-dependent specialized carrier-mediated exchange mechanism for thiamine transport across the human jejunum basolateral membranes.

Identification of an Apical Cl-/HCO3- Exchanger in Gastric Surface Mucous and Duodenal Villus Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Dec, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12893630

The molecular identity of the apical HCO3(-)-secreting transporter in gastric mucous cells remains unknown despite its essential role in preventing injury and ulcer by gastric acid. Here we report the identification of a Cl-/HCO3- exchanger that is located on apical membranes of gastric surface epithelial cells. RT-PCR studies of mouse gastrointestinal tract mRNAs demonstrated that this transporter, known as anion exchanger isoform 4 (AE4), is expressed in both stomach and duodenum. Northern blot analysis of RNA from purified stomach epithelial cells indicated that AE4 is expressed at higher levels in mucous cells than in parietal cells. Immunoblotting experiments identified AE4 as a approximately 110- to 120-kDa protein in membranes from stomach epithelium and apical membranes from duodenum. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated that AE4 is expressed in apical membranes of surface cells in both mouse and rabbit stomach and duodenum. Functional studies in oocytes indicated that AE4 functions as a Cl-/HCO3- exchanger. These data show that AE4 is an apical Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in gastric mucous cells and duodenal villus cells. On the basis of its function and location, we propose that AE4 may play an important role in mucosal protection.

Differential Regulation of Na+/H+ Exchange Isoform Activities by Enteropathogenic E. Coli in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Aug, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15075254

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important human intestinal foodborne pathogen associated with diarrhea, especially in infants and young children. Although EPEC produces characteristic attaching and effacing lesions and loss of microvilli, the pathophysiology of EPEC-associated diarrhea, particularly during early infection, remains elusive. The present studies were designed to examine the direct effects of EPEC infection on intestinal absorption via Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) isoforms. Caco-2 cells were infected with EPEC strain E2348/69 or nonpathogenic E. coli HB101 for a period of 60 to 120 min. Total NHE activity was significantly increased at 60 min, reaching approximately threefold increase after 90 min of EPEC infection. Similar findings were seen in HT-29 cells and T84 cells indicating that the response was not cell-line specific. Most surprising was the differential regulation of NHE2 and NHE3 by EPEC. Marked activation of NHE2 (300%) occurred, whereas significant inhibition ( approximately 50%) of NHE3 activity was induced. The activity of basolateral isoform NHE1 was also significantly increased in response to EPEC infection. Mutations that disrupted the type III secretion system (TTSS) ablated the effect of EPEC on the activity of both NHE2 and NHE3. These results suggest that EPEC, through a TTSS-dependent mechanism, exerts differential effects on NHE isoform activity in intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, NHEs do not appear to play any role in EPEC-mediated inflammation, because the NHE inhibitors amiloride and 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride did not prevent EPEC-mediated IkappaBalpha degradation.

Cholesterol Modulates Human Intestinal Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. May, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15604201

Bile acids are efficiently absorbed from the intestinal lumen via the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT). ASBT function is essential for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in the body. The molecular mechanisms of the direct effect of cholesterol on human ASBT function and expression are not entirely understood. The present studies were undertaken to establish a suitable in vitro experimental model to study human ASBT function and its regulation by cholesterol. Luminal membrane bile acid transport was evaluated by the measurement of sodium-dependent 3H-labeled taurocholic acid (3H-TC) uptake in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. The relative abundance of human ASBT (hASBT) mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. Transient transfection and luciferase assay techniques were employed to assess hASBT promoter activity. Caco-2 cell line was found to represent a suitable model to study hASBT function and regulation. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25-HCH; 2.5 microg/ml for 24 h) significantly inhibited Na(+)-dependent 3H-TC uptake in Caco-2 cells. This inhibition was associated with a 50% decrease in the V(max) of the transporter with no significant changes in the apparent K(m). The inhibition in hASBT activity was associated with reduction in both the level of hASBT mRNA and its promoter activity. Our data show the inhibition of hASBT function and expression by 25-HCH in Caco-2 cells. These data provide novel evidence for the direct regulation of human ASBT function by cholesterol and suggest that this phenomenon may play a central role in cholesterol homeostasis.

Involvement of C-Src and Protein Kinase C Delta in the Inhibition of Cl(-)/OH- Exchange Activity in Caco-2 Cells by Serotonin

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15637072

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is an important neurotransmitter and intercellular messenger regulating various gastrointestinal functions, including electrolyte transport. To date, however, no information is available with respect to its effects on the human intestinal apical anion exchanger Cl(-)/OH- (HCO3-). The present studies were therefore undertaken to examine the direct effects of serotonin on OH- gradient-driven 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid-sensitive 36Cl- uptake utilizing the post-confluent transformed human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. Our results demonstrate that serotonin inhibits Cl(-)/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells via both tyrosine kinase and Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase C delta-mediated pathways involving either 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 receptor subtype. The data consistent with our inference are as follows. (i) The short term treatment of cells with 5-HT (0.1 microM) for 15-60 min significantly decreased Cl(-)/OH- exchange (50-70%, p < 0.05). (ii) The specific agonists for 5-HT3, m-chlorophenylbiguanide, and 5-HT4, 3-(4-allylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-quinoxaline chloronitrile, mimicked the effects of serotonin. (iii) Tropisetron dual inhibitor for both the 5-HT3/4 receptor subtypes significantly blocked the inhibition, whereas specific 5-HT3 (Y-25130) or 5-HT4 receptor (RS39604) antagonist failed to block the inhibitory effects of 5-HT. (iv) The Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl ester) had no effect on the serotonin-induced inhibition. (v) The specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors chelerythrine chloride or calphostin C completely blocked the inhibition by 5-HT. (vi) The specific inhibitor for PKC delta, rottlerin, significantly blocked the inhibition by 5-HT. (vii) The specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin, or Src family kinase inhibitor, PP1, abolished the 5-HT-mediated inhibition of Cl(-)/OH- exchange activity. (viii) 5-HT stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Src kinase and PKC delta.

Role of USF1 and USF2 As Potential Repressor Proteins for Human Intestinal Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 Promoter

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jun, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15691871

Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, is the major energy fuel for the colonocytes. We have previously reported that monocarboxylate transporter isoform 1 (MCT1) mediates uptake of butyrate by human colonic Caco-2 cells. To better understand the mechanisms of MCT1 expression and regulation in the human intestine, we examined the activity and regulation of MCT1 promoter in Caco-2 cells. The transcription initiation site in the MCT1 promoter was identified as a guanine nucleotide 281 bp upstream from the translation initiation site and is surrounded by a guanine-cytosine-rich area. The promoter was found to be highly active when transfected into Caco-2 cells, and its activity decreased with deletions at its 5'-end. Gel mobility shift experiments showed binding of the transcription factors upstream stimulatory factor (USF)1 and 2 to the site -114 to -119 of the MCT1 promoter. With the use of site-directed mutagenesis and promoter activity in Caco-2 cells, the USF proteins appeared to have a repressor role on the MCT1 promoter, which was further confirmed by cotransfecting expression vectors encoding USF1 and 2 in Caco-2 cells and determining endogenous MCT1 expression in USF2 overexpressed cells. The two potential SP1 binding sites found in the same region of the promoter were found not to be involved in its regulation.

Serotonin Inhibits Na+/H+ Exchange Activity Via 5-HT4 Receptors and Activation of PKC Alpha in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

Gastroenterology. Apr, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15825078

Increased serotonin levels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diarrhea associated with celiac and inflammatory diseases. However, the effects of serotonin on Na+ /H+ exchange (NHE) activity in the human intestine have not been investigated fully. The present studies examined the acute effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on NHE activity using Caco-2 cells as an in vitro model.

Expression and Membrane Localization of MCT Isoforms Along the Length of the Human Intestine

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Oct, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15901598

Recent studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated the involvement of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1 in the luminal uptake of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the human intestine. Functional studies from our laboratory previously demonstrated kinetically distinct SCFA transporters on the apical and basolateral membranes of human colonocytes. Although apical SCFA uptake is mediated by the MCT1 isoform, the molecular identity of the basolateral membrane SCFA transporter(s) and whether this transporter is encoded by another MCT isoform is not known. The present studies were designed to assess the expression and membrane localization of different MCT isoforms in human small intestine and colon. Immunoblotting was performed with the purified apical and basolateral membranes from human intestinal mucosa obtained from organ donor intestine. Immunohistochemistry studies were done on paraffin-embedded sections of human colonic biopsy samples. Immunoblotting studies detected a protein band of approximately 39 kDa for MCT1, predominantly in the apical membranes. The relative abundance of MCT1 mRNA and protein increased along the length of the human intestine. MCT4 (54 kDa) and MCT5 (54 kDa) isoforms showed basolateral localization and were highly expressed in the distal colon. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that human MCT1 antibody labeling was confined to the apical membranes, whereas MCT5 antibody staining was restricted to the basolateral membranes of the colonocytes. We speculate that distinct MCT isoforms may be involved in SCFA transport across the apical or basolateral membranes in polarized colonic epithelial cells.

Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Egr-1 is Involved in Stimulation of NHE2 Gene Expression by Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Oct, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15976391

The apical membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoforms NHE2 and NHE3 are involved in transepithelial Na(+) absorption in the intestine. However, they exhibit differences in their pattern of tissue expression and regulation of their activity by various molecular signals. To study the mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of these genes, we characterized cis-acting elements within the human NHE2 promoter that regulate NHE2 promoter expression in C2BBe1 cells. A small DNA region (-85/+249) was involved in the regulation of basal transcriptional activity of the NHE2 promoter as determined by transient transfection assays. RT-PCR analysis showed that NHE2 mRNA was upregulated in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Results from actinomycin D-treated cells indicated that the regulation of the NHE2 gene by PMA occurs in part at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, PMA treatment led to a 100% increase in promoter activity through elements located on the -415/+249 DNA fragment. A PMA-induced nuclear factor that bound to the NHE2 promoter was identified as the transcription factor Egr-1. We identified two PMA response elements in the -415/+1 promoter region that bind to Sp1 and Sp3 in untreated nuclear extracts and to Egr-1 in PMA-treated nuclear extracts. In cotransfection experiments, Egr-1 was able to transactivate the NHE2 promoter. Our data indicate that Egr-1 may play a key role in regulated expression of the human NHE2 gene.

Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli Inhibits Butyrate Uptake in Caco-2 Cells by Altering the Apical Membrane MCT1 Level

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jan, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16150873

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a food-borne human pathogen, is responsible for infantile diarrhea, especially in developing countries. The pathophysiology of EPEC-induced diarrhea, however, is not completely understood. Our recent studies showed modulation of Na+/H+ and Cl-/HCO3- exchange activities in Caco-2 cells in response to EPEC infection. We hypothesized that intestinal short-chain fatty acid absorption mediated by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) might also be altered by EPEC infection. The aim of the current studies was to examine the effect of EPEC infection on butyrate uptake. Caco-2 cells were infected with wild-type EPEC, various mutant strains, or nonpathogenic E. coli HS4, and [14C]butyrate uptake was determined. EPEC, but not nonpathogenic E. coli, significantly decreased butyrate uptake. Infection of cells with strains harboring mutations in escN, which encodes a putative ATPase for the EPEC type III secretion system (TTSS), or in the espA, espB, or espD genes encoding structural components of the TTSS, had no effect on butyrate uptake, indicating the TTSS dependence. On the other hand, strains with mutations in the effector protein genes espF, espG, espH, and map inhibited butyrate uptake, similar to the wild-type EPEC. Surface expression of MCT1 decreased considerably after EPEC but not after nonpathogenic E. coli infection. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate inhibition of MCT1-mediated butyrate uptake in Caco-2 cells in response to EPEC infection. This inhibition was dependent on a functional TTSS and the structural proteins EspA, -B, and -D of the translocation apparatus.

Transcriptional Stimulation of the Human NHE3 Promoter Activity by PMA: PKC Independence and Involvement of the Transcription Factor EGR-1

The Biochemical Journal. Jun, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16464174

NHE3 (Na+/H+ exchanger 3) is essential for Na+ absorption in the ileum and is expressed in a cell-specific manner in the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelial cells. In the present study, we report the stimulatory effect of PMA on the hNHE3 (human NHE3) transcription. Pretreatment with actinomycin D or cycloheximide blocked the up-regulation of the NHE3 mRNA by PMA, indicating that the increased level of NHE3 mRNA expression is regulated by transcriptional activation and is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. 5'-Deletion of the promoter region and transfection analysis in C2BBe1 cells revealed that the PMA effect is mediated through a GC-rich DNA region between nt -88 and -69. Gel mobility-shift assays demonstrated that in nuclear extracts from C2BBe1 cells grown under the basal growth conditions, Sp1 (stimulating protein-1) and Sp3 interact with this GC-rich DNA region, while, in PMA-treated nuclear extracts, PMA-induced EGR-1 (early growth response gene product 1) transcription factor binds to the same site. Binding of EGR-1 diminished the Sp1 and Sp3 interactions with this promoter region significantly. Co-transfection of Sp1 or Sp3 into SL2 cells activated the NHE3-reporter constructs, suggesting that Sp1 and Sp3 act as positive regulators of the NHE3 expression. In addition, overexpression of EGR-1 was sufficient to transactivate the NHE3-reporter gene activity, and knockdown of EGR-1 with gene-specific small interfering RNA resulted in inhibition of the PMA-induced up-regulation of the endogenous NHE3 mRNA expression. Furthermore, the PKC (protein kinase C) inhibitor chelerythrine chloride did not affect PMA-induced NHE3 promoter activity, suggesting that PMA stimulation of the hNHE3 gene expression may be PKC-independent.

IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha Regulate Human NHE3 Gene Expression by Modulating the Sp Family Transcription Factors in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line C2BBe1

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Nov, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16760259

Diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel disease has been attributed to stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines like IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, which have been shown to downregulate the expression of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE3) gene. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism of NHE3 gene regulation by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in C2BBe1 cells. In response to both IFN-gamma (30 ng/ml) and TNF-alpha (20 ng/ml), the construct containing the bp -95 to +5 region of the human NHE3 promoter, which harbors a number of cis-elements including four potential Sp1 binding sites, showed a maximum repression of 60%. Knockdown of Sp1 and Sp3 expression using small interfering RNA resulted in a significant inhibition of the NHE3 promoter activity and resistance to cytokines effects. These cytokines showed no effects on the expression of Sp1 and Sp3 mRNA and protein levels as assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively. After treatment with cytokines, the binding of Sp1 and Sp3 proteins to NHE3 promoter decreased significantly, as seen by gel mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The inhibitory effects of both cytokines on the NHE3 promoter were completely blocked by the broad-range kinase inhibitor staurosporine and the selective protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer. The binding affinity of Sp1 and Sp3 proteins for NHE3 Sp1 probe was significantly decreased after in vitro phosphorylation of nuclear proteins by the alpha-catalytic subunit of PKA. Our data indicate that IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha may repress the NHE3 promoter activity in C2BBe1 cells by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors.

Rapid Activation of Na+/H+ Exchange by EPEC is PKC Mediated

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16782696

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) increases sodium/hydrogen exchanger 2 (NHE2)-mediated sodium uptake by intestinal epithelial cells in a type III secretion-dependent manner. However, the mechanism(s) underlying these changes are not known. This study examines the role of a number of known secreted effector molecules and bacterial adhesins as well as the signaling pathways involved in this process. Deletion of the bacterial adhesins Tir and intimin had no effect on the increase in sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) activity promoted by EPEC infection; however, there was a significant decrease upon deletion of the bundle-forming pili. Bacterial supernatant also failed to alter NHE activity, suggesting that direct interaction with bacteria is necessary. Analysis of the signal transduction cascades responsible for the increased NHE2 activity during EPEC infection showed that PLC increased Ca2+, as well as PKCalpha and PKCepsilon were involved in increasing NHE activity. The activation of PKCepsilon by EPEC has not been previously described nor has its role in regulating NHE2 activity. Because EPEC markedly increases NHE2 activity, this pathogen provides an exceptional opportunity to improve our understanding of this less-characterized NHE isoform.

Modulation of Human Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 Gene Expression by Sterol: Role of Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jan, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17008555

Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is an essential intestinal component of cholesterol absorption. However, little is known about the molecular regulation of intestinal NPC1L1 expression and promoter activity. We demonstrated that human NPC1L1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased by 25-hydroxycholesterol but increased in response to cellular cholesterol depletion achieved by incubation with Mevinolin (an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. We also showed that a -1741/+56 fragment of the NPC1L1 gene demonstrated high promoter activity in Caco-2 cells that was reduced by 25-hydroxycholesterol and stimulated by cholesterol depletion. Interestingly, we showed that the NPC1L1 promoter is remarkably transactivated by the overexpression of sterol regulatory element (SRE) binding protein (SREBP)-2, suggesting its involvement in the sterol-induced alteration in NPC1L1 promoter activity. Finally, we identified two putative SREs in the human NPC1L1 promoter and established their essential roles in mediating the effects of cholesterol on promoter activity. Our study demonstrated the modulation of human NPC1L1 expression and promoter activity by cholesterol in a SREBP-2-dependent mechanism.

Carrageenan Induces Interleukin-8 Production Through Distinct Bcl10 Pathway in Normal Human Colonic Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Mar, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17095757

Carrageenan is a high molecular weight sulfated polygalactan used to improve the texture of commercial food products. Its use increased markedly during the last half century, although carrageenan is known to induce inflammation in rheumatological models and in intestinal models of colitis. We performed studies to determine its direct effects on human intestinal cells, including normal human intestinal epithelial cells from colonic surgeries, the normal intestinal epithelial cell line NCM460, and normal rat ileal epithelial cells. Cells were treated with high molecular weight lambda-carrageenan at a concentration of 1 mug/ml for 1-96 h. IL-8, IL-8 promoter activity, total and nuclear NF-kappaB, IkappaBalpha, phospho-IkappaBalpha, and Bcl10 were assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, ELISA, and cDNA microarray. Increased Bcl10, nuclear and cytoplasmic NF-kappaB, IL-8 promoter activation, and IL-8 secretion were detected following carrageenan exposure. Knockdown of Bcl10 by siRNA markedly reduced the increase in IL-8 that followed carrageenan exposure in the NCM460 cells. These results show, for the first time, that exposure of human intestinal epithelial cells to carrageenan triggers a distinct inflammatory pathway via activation of Bcl10 with NF-kappaB activation and upregulation of IL-8 secretion. Since Bcl10 contains a caspase-recruitment domain, similar to that found in NOD2/CARD15 and associated with genetic predisposition to Crohn's disease, the study findings may represent a link between genetic and environmental etiologies of inflammatory bowel disease. Because of the high use of carrageenan as a food additive in the diet, the findings may have clinical significance.

Mechanism Underlying Inhibition of Intestinal Apical Cl/OH Exchange Following Infection with Enteropathogenic E. Coli

The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Feb, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17256057

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is a major cause of infantile diarrhea, but the pathophysiology underlying associated diarrhea is poorly understood. We examined the role of the luminal membrane Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange process in EPEC pathogenesis using in vitro and in vivo models. Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was measured as OH(-) gradient-driven (36)Cl(-) uptake. EPEC infection (60 minutes-3 hours) inhibited apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity in human intestinal Caco-2 and T84 cells. This effect was dependent upon the bacterial type III secretory system (TTSS) and involved secreted effector molecules EspG and EspG2, known to disrupt the host microtubular network. The microtubule-disrupting agent colchicine (100 muM, 3 hours) also inhibited (36)Cl(-) uptake. The plasma membrane expression of major apical anion exchanger DRA (SLC26A3) was considerably reduced in EPEC-infected cells, corresponding with decreased Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity. Confocal microscopic studies showed that EPEC infection caused a marked redistribution of DRA from the apical membrane to intracellular compartments. Interestingly, infection of cells with an EPEC mutant deficient in espG significantly attenuated the decrease in surface expression of DRA protein as compared with treatment with wild-type EPEC. EPEC infection in vivo (1 day) also caused marked redistribution of surface DRA protein in the mouse colon. Our data demonstrate that EspG and EspG2 play an important role in contributing to EPEC infection-associated inhibition of luminal membrane chloride transport via modulation of surface DRA expression.

Taurodeoxycholate Modulates Apical Cl-/OH- Exchange Activity in Caco2 Cells

Digestive Diseases and Sciences. May, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17387613

Bile acid malabsorption has been shown to be associated with diarrhea in cases such as ileal resection Crohn's disease of the ileum, and radiation enteritis. The mechanisms of bile acid-induced diarrhea are not fully understood. Although the induction of colonic chloride secretion in response to bile acids has been extensively investigated, to date the direct effect of bile acids on intestinal chloride absorption has not been well defined. Therefore, the current studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of bile acids on the apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange process utilizing Caco2 monolayers as an in vitro cellular model. Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was measured as DIDS-sensitive pH gradient-driven (36)Cl uptake. The results are summarized as follows: (i) short-term exposure (20 min) of Caco2 cells to taurodeoxycholate (TDC; 200 microM) and glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC; 200 microM) acids significantly inhibited apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange (by approximately 60-70%); (ii) the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM blocked the inhibition by TDC; (iii) the reduction in Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange by TDC was reversed by the PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine chloride; (iv) functional and inhibitor studies indicated that TDC induced inhibition of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange was mediated via the activation of the PKC beta I isoform; (v) the effect of TDC on apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange was completely blocked by the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 (5 microM); and (vi) the PKA inhibitor, RpcAMP, had no effect on TDC induced inhibition of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange. In conclusion, our studies provide direct evidence for inhibition of human intestinal apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity by bile acids via Ca(2+)-, PI3 kinase-, and PKC beta I-dependent pathways in Caco2 cells.

Carrageenan Reduces Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 (BMP4) and Activates the Wnt/beta-catenin Pathway in Normal Human Colonocytes

Digestive Diseases and Sciences. Oct, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17429723

Carrageenans are highly sulfated polysaccharides that are widely used as food additives in the Western diet, in order to improve the texture of processed foods. Although native and degraded carrageenans induce colonic ulcerations, polyps, and colorectal tumors in animal models, very little is known about the effects of carrageenan on human colonocytes. We evaluated effects of lambda-carrageenan (lambdaCGN) on the normal human colonocyte cell line NCM460, using a concentration of 1 mug/ml, about less than one tenth the average daily exposure to carrageenan in the Western diet. We measured secreted bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) in spent media and quantified its expression by quantitative RT-PCR. Wnt-related genes were measured by an oligonucleotide array. Cellular beta-catenin was quantified by ELISA. We found a marked decline in secreted BMP4 (P < 0.001) following exposure of NCM460 cells to lambdaCGN for 24 hr. Quantitative RT-PCR for BMP4 transcripts revealed 24% and 45% inhibition of expression on days 2 and 4. cDNA gene expression array of Wnt signaling pathway target genes demonstrated significant changes, including 4.5-fold induction of Wnt 9A and suppression of Dickkopf 3 and RHOU genes. Measurement of beta-catenin by ELISA revealed concomitant accumulation with increases of 67.8%, 61.6%, and 73.9% on days 1, 2, and 4, compared to untreated controls. We conclude that treatment of normal human colonocytes with lambdaCGN activated the Wnt/beta-Catenin cascade and suppressed the expression and secretion of BMP4, inducing significant changes in cellular pathways that are associated with both sporadic and juvenile polyps. CGN may influence development of intestinal polyps in vivo by these mechanisms.

Bcl10 Mediates LPS-induced Activation of NF-kappaB and IL-8 in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Aug, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17540779

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is recognized as an inducer of the inflammatory response associated with gram-negative sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. LPS induction proceeds through Toll-like receptor (TLR) in immune cells and intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). This report presents the first identification of Bcl10 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10) as a mediator of the LPS-induced activation of IL-8 in human IEC. Bcl10 is a caspase-recruitment domain-containing protein, associated with constitutive activation of NF-kappaB in MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphomas. The normal human IEC line NCM460, normal primary human colonocytes, and ex vivo human colonic tissue were exposed to 10 ng/ml of LPS for 2-6 h. Effects on Bcl10, phospho-IkappaBalpha, NF-kappaB, and IL-8 were determined by Western blot, ELISA, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy. Effects of Bcl10 silencing by small-interfering RNA (siRNA), TLR4 blocking antibody, TLR4 silencing by siRNA, and an IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-1/4 inhibitor on LPS-induced activation were examined. Following Bcl10 silencing, LPS-induced increases in NF-kappaB, IkappaBalpha, and IL-8 were significantly reduced (P < 0.001). Increasing concentrations of LPS were associated with higher concentrations of Bcl10 protein when quantified by ELISA, and the association between LPS exposure and increased Bcl10 was also demonstrated by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy. Exposure to TLR4 antibody, TLR4 siRNA, or an IRAK-1/4 inhibitor eliminated the LPS-induced increases in Bcl10, NF-kappaB, and IL-8. Identification of Bcl10 as a mediator of LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB and IL-8 in normal human IEC provides new insight into mechanisms of epithelial inflammation and new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

Involvement of Sp1 and Sp3 in Differential Regulation of Human NHE3 Promoter Activity by Sodium Butyrate and IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jul, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17540780

Previously, we reported that IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha downregulate the expression of the human Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE)3 gene by modulating Sp1/Sp3 transcription factors in C2BBe1 cells. It is reported that butyrate inhibits IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha signaling pathways. In this study, we have investigated the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) and IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha on human NHE3 promoter activity. In transient transfection studies, NaB (5 mM) led to 10-fold stimulation of NHE3 promoter activity after incubation for 24 h. With 5'-deletion analysis, the NaB-responsive region was mapped to the NHE3 core promoter, bp -95 to + 5, which we had shown previously to confer responsiveness to IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha. The stimulatory effect of NaB on the NHE3 promoter was reduced by 60% in the presence of IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha. Mutually, the repressive effect of these cytokines was attenuated by NaB. Knockdown of Sp1 and Sp3 expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in a significant resistance to NaB effects. NaB treatment showed no effect on Sp1 and Sp3 protein expression as assessed by Western blot analyses. Gel mobility shift assays with nuclear proteins from NaB-treated cells showed enhanced binding of Sp1 and Sp3 to the NHE3 promoter. The phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (200 nM) blocked the stimulatory effect of NaB on the NHE3 promoter. NaB effects on the NHE3 promoter were significantly attenuated by protein phosphatase (PP)1alpha- and PP2Aalpha-specific siRNA transfection. Our data suggest that the differential regulation of NHE3 gene expression by NaB and IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha is mediated through alternative pathways that converge on Sp1/Sp3.

Sp1 and Sp3 Control Constitutive Expression of the Human NHE2 Promoter by Interactions with the Proximal Promoter and the Transcription Initiation Site

The Biochemical Journal. Oct, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17561809

We have previously cloned the human Na+/H+ exchanger NHE2 gene and its promoter region. In the present study, the regulatory elements responsible for the constitutive expression of NHE2 were studied. Transient transfection assays revealed that the -40/+150 promoter region contains the core promoter responsible for the optimal promoter activity. A smaller fragment, -10/+40, containing the TIS (transcription initiation site) showed minimal activity. We identified a palindrome that overlaps the TIS and binds to the transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3. Mutations in the 5' flank of the palindrome abolished the Sp1/Sp3 interaction and reduced promoter activity by approx. 45%. In addition, a conserved GC-box centered at -25 was found to play a critical role in basal promoter activity and also interacted with Sp1 and Sp3. An internal deletion in the GC-box severely reduced the promoter activity. Sp1/Sp3 binding to these elements was established using gel-mobility shift assays, confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and co-transfections in Drosophila SL2 cells. Furthermore, we identified two positive regulatory elements in the DNA region corresponding to the 5'-UTR (5'-untranslated region). The results in the present study indicate that Sp1 and Sp3 are required for constitutive NHE2 expression and that the positive regulatory elements of the 5'-UTR may co-operate with the 5'-flanking region to achieve the optimal promoter activity.

Development, Evaluation, and Application of a Highly Sensitive Microtiter Plate ELISA for Human Bcl10 Protein

Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry. 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17613665

Bcl10 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10) is a 233 amino acid CARD (caspase recruitment domain)-containing cellular protein, increasingly recognized as a mediator of NFkappaB activation in non-immune, as well as immune cells. Due to the importance of Bcl10 in diverse cell types, we developed a solid-phase, enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay to precisely measure Bcl10 in small volume cell lysates, using recombinant Bcl10 to standardize the assay. Standard curve measures Bcl10 from 0.25 ng/mL to 16 ng/mL, with very low intra- and inter-assay variation. Sample dilution and exogenous Bcl10 recovery experiments, comparisons with Western blot, and linear response to increasing doses of known Bcl10 activators confirm the specificity and precision of the ELISA.

Bupivacaine, but Not Lidocaine, Disrupts Cardiolipin-containing Small Biomimetic Unilamellar Liposomes

Chemico-biological Interactions. Sep, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17643405

Inadvertent intravenous administration of bupivacaine, unlike that of lidocaine, is associated with significant cardiotoxicity. However, the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon is uncertain. High concentrations of cardiolipin, an anionic phospholipid, are found in the mitochondria membrane of cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that bupivacaine, but not lidocaine, interacts avidly with cardiolipin in the mitochondria membrane of cardiomyocytes and alters its integrity thereby accounting, in part, for cardiotoxicity. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to begin to address this issue by determining the effects of bupivacaine and lidocaine on permeability of cardiolipin-containing biomimetic small unilamellar liposomes. We found that bupivacaine, but not lidocaine, elicited a significant, concentration-dependent increase in carboxyfluorescein release from cardiolipin-containing small unilamellar liposomes (size, 165nm) composed of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (p<0.05). Both drugs had no significant effects on carboxyfluorescein release from liposomes devoid of cardiolipin (p>0.5). Collectively, these data indicate that bupivacaine, but not lidocaine, interacts avidly and selectively with biomimetic small unilamellar liposomes containing cardiolipin and disrupts their integrity. We suggest that these interactions underlie, in part, bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity.

Molecular Cloning and Promoter Analysis of Downregulated in Adenoma (DRA)

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17761837

Downregulated in adenoma (DRA), also referred to as SLC26A3, is an intestinal anion transporter essential for intestinal chloride absorption. Mutations in DRA result in congenital chloride diarrhea. DRA expression has been shown to be induced by differentiation and to be modulated by cytokines. However, mechanisms of DRA gene transcription and its tissue-specific targeting have not yet been investigated. In this study, we cloned a 3,765-bp promoter fragment of human DRA gene and characterized its activity in human colonic LS174T and Caco-2 human colon cell lines. Primer extension identified a single transcriptional initiation site that was identical in both colon cancer cell lines and normal colon. Although hepatic nuclear factor HNF-4 is involved in the basal activity of DRA promoter, sodium butyrate induces its activity in LS174T cells via the binding of Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and GATA transcription factors to their respective cis-elements in promoter region. We also demonstrated a reduction in DRA promoter activity in Caco-2 cells by IFN-gamma, suggesting that regulation of DRA promoter by IFN-gamma may contribute to the pathophysiology of intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, we showed that the DRA promoter fragment is sufficient to drive human growth hormone transgene expression specifically in villus epithelial cells of the small intestine and in differentiated upper crypt and surface epithelial cells of the colon. Our studies provide evidence for the involvement of HNF-4, YY1, and GATA transcription factors in DRA expression in intestinal differentiated epithelial cells.

Regulation of Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) Promoter by Butyrate in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Involvement of NF-kappaB Pathway

Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Apr, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 17786924

Butyrate, a short chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates in the colon, constitutes the major fuel for colonocytes. We have earlier shown the role of apically localized monocarboxylate transporter isoform 1 (MCT1) in transport of butyrate into human colonic Caco-2 cells. In an effort to study the regulation of MCT1 gene, we and others have cloned the promoter region of the MCT1 gene and identified cis elements for key transcription factors. A previous study has shown up-regulation of MCT1 expression, and activity by butyrate in AA/C1 human colonic epithelial cells, however, the detailed mechanisms of this up-regulation are not known. In this study, we demonstrate that butyrate, a substrate for MCT1, stimulates MCT1 promoter activity in Caco-2 cells. This effect was dose dependent and specific to butyrate as other predominant SCFAs, acetate, and propionate, were ineffective. Utilizing progressive deletion constructs of the MCT1 promoter, we showed that the putative butyrate responsive elements are in the -229/+91 region of the promoter. Butyrate stimulation of the MCT1 promoter was found to be independent of PKC, PKA, and tyrosine kinases. However, specific inhibitors of the NF-kappaB pathway, lactacystein (LC), and caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE) significantly reduced the MCT1 promoter stimulation by butyrate. Also, butyrate directly stimulated NF-kappaB-dependent luciferase reporter activity. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) also stimulated MCT1 promoter activity, however, unlike butyrate, this stimulation was unaltered by the NF-kappaB inhibitors. Further, the combined effect of butyrate, and TSA on MCT1 promoter activity was additive, indicating that their mechanisms of action were independent. Our results demonstrate the involvement of NF-kappaB pathway in the regulation of MCT1 promoter activity by butyrate.

Function, Expression, and Characterization of the Serotonin Transporter in the Native Human Intestine

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jan, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 17991706

The enteric serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in modulating serotonin availability and thus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various intestinal disorders. To date, SERT expression and function in the human intestine have not been investigated. Current studies were designed to characterize the function, expression, distribution, and membrane localization of SERT in the native human intestine. Real-time PCR studies showed relatively higher SERT mRNA expression in the human small intestine compared with colon (ileum > duodenum > jejunum). Northern blot analysis revealed three mRNA hybridizing species encoding SERT (3.0, 4.9, and 6.8 kb) in the human ileum. Consistent with SERT mRNA expression, SERT immunostaining was mainly detected in the epithelial cells of human duodenal and ileal resected tissues. Notably, SERT expression was localized predominantly to the apical and intracellular compartments and was distributed throughout the crypt-villus axis. Immunoblotting studies detected a prominent protein band ( approximately 70 kDa) in the ileal apical plasma membrane vesicles (AMVs) isolated from mucosa obtained from organ-donor intestine. Functional studies showed that uptake of [(3)H]serotonin (150 nM) in human ileal AMVs was 1) significantly increased in the presence of both Na(+) and Cl(-); 2) inhibited ( approximately 50%) by the neuronal SERT inhibitor, fluoxetine (10 microM) and by unlabeled 5-HT; and 3) exhibited saturation kinetics indicating the presence of a carrier-mediated process. Our studies demonstrated differential expression of SERT across various regions of the human intestine and provide evidence for the existence of a functional SERT capable of removing intraluminal serotonin in human ileal epithelial cells.

Modulation of Ileal Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) Activity by Depletion of Plasma Membrane Cholesterol: Association with Lipid Rafts

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Feb, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18063707

Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) represents a highly efficient conservation mechanism of bile acids via mediation of their active transport across the luminal membrane of terminal ileum. To gain insight into the cellular regulation of ASBT, we investigated the association of ASBT with cholesterol and sphingolipid-enriched specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts and examined the role of membrane cholesterol in maintaining ASBT function. Human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells stably transfected with human ASBT, human ileal brush-border membrane vesicles, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were utilized for these studies. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of ASBT protein with lipid rafts. Disruption of lipid rafts by depletion of membrane cholesterol with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) significantly reduced the association of ASBT with lipid rafts, which was paralleled by a decrease in ASBT activity in Caco-2 and HEK-293 cells treated with MbetaCD. The inhibition in ASBT activity by MbetaCD was blocked in the cells treated with MbetaCD-cholesterol complexes. Kinetic analysis revealed that MbetaCD treatment decreased the V(max) of the transporter, which was not associated with alteration in the plasma membrane expression of ASBT. Our study illustrates that cholesterol content of lipid rafts is essential for the optimal activity of ASBT and support the association of ASBT with lipid rafts. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which ASBT activity may be rapidly modulated by alterations in cholesterol content of plasma membrane and thus have important implications in processes related to maintenance of bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis.

Toll-like Receptor 4 Mediates Induction of the Bcl10-NFkappaB-interleukin-8 Inflammatory Pathway by Carrageenan in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Apr, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18252714

The sulfated polysaccharide carrageenan (CGN) induces activation of NFkappaB and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in human colonic epithelial cells through a pathway of innate immunity mediated by Bcl10 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10). In this report, we identify Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the family of innate immune receptors, as the surface membrane receptor for CGN in human colonic epithelial cells. Experiments with fluorescence-tagged CGN demonstrated a marked reduction in binding of CGN to human intestinal epithelial cells and to RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages, following exposure to TLR4 blocking antibody (HTA-125). Binding of CGN to 10ScNCr/23 mouse macrophages, which are deficient in the genetic locus for TLR4, was absent. Additional experiments with TLR4 blocking antibody and TLR4 small interfering RNAs showed 80% reductions in CGN-induced increases in Bcl10 and IL-8. Transfection with dominant-negative MyD88 plasmid demonstrated MyD88 dependence of the CGN-TLR4-triggered increases in Bcl10 and IL-8. Therefore, these results indicate that CGN-induced inflammation in human colonocytes proceeds through a pathway of innate immunity, perhaps related to the unusual alpha-1,3-galactosidic linkage characteristic of CGN, and suggest how dietary CGN intake may contribute to human intestinal inflammation. Because CGN is a commonly used food additive in the Western diet, clarification of its effects and mechanisms of action are vital to issues of food safety.

Carrageenan Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Vitro

The Journal of Nutrition. Mar, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18287351

Multiple studies in animal models have shown that the commonly used food additive carrageenan (CGN) induces inflammation and intestinal neoplasia. We performed the first studies to determine the effects of CGN exposure on human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in tissue culture and tested the effect of very low concentrations (1-10 mg/L) of undegraded, high-molecular weight CGN. These concentrations of CGN are less than the anticipated exposure of the human colon to CGN from the average Western diet. In the human colonic epithelial cell line NCM460 and in primary human colonic epithelial cells that were exposed to CGN for 1-8 d, we found increased cell death, reduced cell proliferation, and cell cycle arrest compared with unexposed control cells. After 6-8 d of CGN exposure, the percentage of cells reentering G0-G1 significantly decreased and the percentages of cells in S and G2-M phases significantly increased. Increases in activated p53, p21, and p15 followed CGN exposure, consistent with CGN-induced cell cycle arrest. Additional data, including DNA ladder, poly ADP ribose polymerase Western blot, nuclear DNA staining, and activities of caspases 3 and 7, indicated no evidence of increased apoptosis following CGN exposure and were consistent with CGN-induced necrotic cell death. These data document for the first time, to our knowledge, marked adverse effects of low concentrations of CGN on survival of normal human IEC and suggest that CGN exposure may have a role in development of human intestinal pathology.

The Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli Effector Protein EspF Decreases Sodium Hydrogen Exchanger 3 Activity

Cellular Microbiology. Aug, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18433466

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) have been previously shown to alter sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) activity in human intestinal epithelial cells. To further characterize these observations, PS120 fibroblasts transfected with NHE3 were studied. EPEC E2348/69 infection decreased NHE3 activity in PS120 fibroblasts. The effect on NHE3 was enhanced when PS120 cells were co-transfected with the scaffolding/regulatory proteins NHERF1 or NHERF2 or EBP50 and E3KARP respectively. The decrease in NHE3 activity was dependent on an intact type III secretion system, although intimate attachment mediated by translocated intimin receptor was not required. Despite its ability to bind to NHERF proteins, the EPEC effector Map had no impact on the regulation of NHE activity. Instead, EspF was found to be responsible for decreased NHE3 activity. However, neither EspF-induced apoptosis nor the interaction of EspF with sorting nexin-9, an endocytic protein, were involved.

Carrageenan-induced NFkappaB Activation Depends on Distinct Pathways Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species and Hsp27 or by Bcl10

Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Jul-Aug, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18452717

Carrageenans are highly sulfated polysaccharides that are widely used as food additives due to their ability to improve food texture. They are also widely recognized for their ability to induce inflammation in animal models of colitis. Recently, we reported that carrageenan (CGN) activated a pathway of innate immunity in human colonic epithelial cells mediated by Bcl10 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10). However, increases in phospho-IkappaBalpha and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were not completely inhibited by silencing Bcl10, suggesting that CGN also influenced another mechanism, or mechanisms, of inflammation. In this report, we demonstrate that CGN increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human colonic epithelial cells. The combination of ROS quenching by the free radical scavenger Tempol and of Bcl10 silencing by siRNA completely inhibited the CGN-induced increases in nuclear NFkappaB (p65), phospho-IkappaBalpha, and secretion of IL-8. The CGN-induced increase in ROS was associated with declines in phosphorylation of MAPK 12 (p38gamma), MAPK 13 (p38delta), and heat-shock protein (Hsp) 27. The CGN-induced decline in phospho-Hsp27 was reversed by co-administration of Tempol (100 nM), but unaffected by silencing Bcl10. Since Hsp27 phosphorylation is inversely associated with phosphorylation of the IkappaBalpha kinase (IKK) signalosome, CGN exposure appears to affect the IKK signalosome by both the catalytic component, mediated by ROS-phospho-Hsp27, and the regulatory component, mediated by Bcl10 interaction with IKKgamma (Nemo). Hence, the CGN-activated inflammatory cascades related to innate immunity and to generation of ROS may be integrated at the level of the IKK signalosome.

Role of Fyn and PI3K in H2O2-induced Inhibition of Apical Cl-/OH- Exchange Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

The Biochemical Journal. Nov, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18564062

H(2)O(2) is a highly reactive oxygen metabolite that has been implicated as an important mediator of inflammation-induced intestinal injury associated with ischaemia/reperfusion, radiation and inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies have shown that H(2)O(2) inhibits NaCl absorption and activates Cl(-) secretion in the rat and rabbit colon. To date, however, almost no information is available with respect to its effect on the human intestinal apical anion exchanger Cl(-)/OH(-) (HCO(3)(-)). The present studies were, therefore, undertaken to examine the direct effects of H(2)O(2) on OH(-) gradient-driven DIDS (4,4'-di-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate)-sensitive (36)Cl(-) uptake utilizing a post-confluent transformed human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2. Our results demonstrate that H(2)O(2) (1 mM for 60 min) significantly inhibited (approx. 60%; P<0.05) Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity in Caco-2 cells. H(2)O(2)-mediated inhibition of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity involved the Src kinase Fyn and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-dependent pathways. H(2)O(2) also induced phosphorylation of Fyn and p85 (the regulatory subunit of PI3K) in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, an increased association of Fyn and p85 was observed in response to H(2)O(2), resulting in the activation of the downstream target PLCgamma1 (phospholipase Cgamma1). Elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels and PKCalpha (protein kinase Calpha) functioned as downstream effectors of H(2)O(2)-induced PLCgamma1 activation. Our results, for the first time, provide evidence for H(2)O(2)-induced Src kinase Fyn/PI3K complex association. This complex association resulted in the subsequent activation of PLCgamma1 and Ca(2+)-dependent PKCalpha, resulting in the inhibition of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity. These findings suggest that H(2)O(2)-induced inhibition of the Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange process may play an important role in the pathophysiology of diarrhoea associated with inflammatory disorders, where the amount of reactive oxygen species is markedly elevated.

The Probiotic Lactobacillus Acidophilus Stimulates Chloride/hydroxyl Exchange Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

The Journal of Nutrition. Jul, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18567760

Probiotics are viable nonpathogenic microorganisms that are considered to confer health benefits to the host. Recent studies indicated that some Lactobacillus species function as probiotics and have been used as alternative treatments for diarrhea, which occurs due to increased secretion, decreased absorption, or both. However, the direct effects of probiotics on intestinal electrolyte absorption are not known. Therefore, we examined the effects of Lactobacillus on luminal chloride/hydroxyl (Cl(-)/OH(-)) exchange activity in human intestinal epithelial cells. Postconfluent Caco-2 cells were treated with the Lactobacillus species Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) for 3 h at a multiplicity of infection of 50. Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was measured as 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid-sensitive (36)Cl uptake in base-loaded cells. Treatment with live, but not heat-killed, LA and LR significantly increased Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity (approximately 50%), whereas other species were ineffective. Similarly, the conditioned medium (supernatant) of live LA increased Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange. The ability of LA or its conditioned culture medium to enhance Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was blocked by PI-3 kinase inhibition but was unaffected by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Corresponding to the increased Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity, LA treatment increased the surface expression of the apical anion exchanger, SLC26A3 [Down Regulated in Adenoma (DRA)]. The increased DRA membrane localization might contribute to the increased Cl(-) absorption by LA. Our results suggest that LA secretes soluble effector molecule(s) into the culture medium that stimulate apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase mediated mechanism.

Characterization of the 5'-flanking Region and Regulation of Expression of Human Anion Exchanger SLC26A6

Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18655181

SLC26A6 (putative anion transporter 1, PAT1) has been shown to play an important role in mediating the luminal Cl(-)/OH(-)(HCO(3)(-)) exchange process in the intestine. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of intestinal SLC26A6 gene expression in the intestine. Current studies were, therefore, designed to clone and characterize the 5'-regulatory region of the human SLC26A6 gene and determine the mechanisms involved in its regulation. A 1,120 bp (p-964/+156) SLC26A6 promoter fragment cloned upstream to the luciferase reporter gene in pGL2-basic exhibited high promoter activity when transfected in Caco2 cells. Progressive deletions of the 5'-flanking region demonstrated that -214/-44 region of the promoter harbors cis-acting elements important for maximal SLC26A6 promoter activity. Since, diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel diseases is attributed to increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, we examined the effects of IFNgamma (30 ng/ml, 24 h) on SLC26A6 function, expression and promoter activity. IFNgamma decreased both SLC26A6 mRNA and function and repressed SLC26A6 promoter activity. Deletion analysis indicated that IFNgamma response element is located between -414/-214 region and sequence analysis of this region revealed the presence of potential Interferon Stimulated Responsive Element (ISRE), a binding site (-318/-300 bp) for interferon regulatory factor-1 transcription factor (IRF-1). Mutations in the potential ISRE site abrogated the inhibitory effects of IFNgamma. These studies provided novel evidence for the involvement of IRF-1 in the regulation of SLC26A6 gene expression by IFNgamma in the human intestine.

Serotonin Modifies Cytoskeleton and Brush-border Membrane Architecture in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18669621

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) influences numerous functions in the gastrointestinal tract. We previously demonstrated that 5-HT treatment of Caco-2 cells inhibited Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHE) and Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activities via distinct signaling mechanisms. Since regulation of several ion transporters such as NHE3 is influenced by intact cytoskeleton, we hypothesized that 5-HT modifies actin cytoskeleton and/or brush-border membrane architecture via involvement of signaling pathways. Ultrastructural analysis showed that 5-HT (0.1 muM, 1 h) treatment of Caco-2 cells caused the apical membrane to assume a convex dome shape that was associated with shortening of microvilli. To examine whether these cellular architecture changes are cytoskeleton driven, we analyzed actin cytoskeleton by fluorescence microscopy. 5-HT induced basal stress fibers with prominent cortical actin filaments via 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor subtypes. This induction was partially attenuated by chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) and PKCalpha inhibition (Go6976). In vitro assays revealed that PKCalpha interacted with actin and this association was increased by 5-HT. Our data provide novel evidence that 5-HT-induced signaling via 5-HT3/4 receptor subtypes to cause Ca(2+) and PKCalpha-dependent regulation of actin cytoskeleton may play an important role in modulation of ion transporters that contribute to pathophysiology of diarrheal conditions associated with elevated levels of 5-HT.

Lipopolysaccharide Activates NF-kappaB by TLR4-Bcl10-dependent and Independent Pathways in Colonic Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18718996

In colonic epithelium, one of the pathways of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation of NF-kappaB and IL-8 is via Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, MyD88, IRAK1/4, and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (Bcl10). However, this innate immune pathway accounts for only approximately 50% of the NF-kappaB activation, so additional mechanisms to explain the LPS-induced effects are required. In this report, we identify a second pathway of LPS-induced stimulation, mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), in human colonic epithelial tissue cells in tissue culture and in ex vivo mouse colonic tissue. Measurements of IL-8, KC, Bcl10, phospho-IkappaBalpha, nuclear NF-kappaB, and phosphorylated Hsp27 were performed by ELISA. The TLR4-Bcl10 pathway was inhibited by Bcl10 siRNA and in studies with colonic tissue from the TLR4-deficient mouse. The ROS pathway was inhibited by Tempol, a free radical scavenger, or by okadaic acid, an inhibitor of Hsp27 dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). The ROS pathway was unaffected in the TLR4-deficient tissue or by silencing of Bcl10. The combination of exposure to the free radical scavenger Tempol and of TLR4 or Bcl10 suppression was required to completely inhibit the LPS-induced activation. The ROS pathway was associated with dephosphorylation of Hsp27. LPS appears to activate both the regulatory component of the IkappaBalpha-kinase (IKK) signalosome through Bcl10 interaction with Nemo (IKKgamma) and the catalytic component through Hsp27 interaction with IKKbeta. Since LPS exposure is associated with septic shock and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, distinguishing between these two pathways of LPS activation may facilitate new approaches to prevention and treatment.

The Carrageenan Diet: Not Recommended

Science (New York, N.Y.). Aug, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18719267

Down-regulated in Adenoma Cl/HCO3 Exchanger Couples with Na/H Exchanger 3 for NaCl Absorption in Murine Small Intestine

Gastroenterology. Nov, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18930060

Electroneutral NaCl absorption across small intestine contributes importantly to systemic fluid balance. Disturbances in this process occur in both obstructive and diarrheal diseases, eg, cystic fibrosis, secretory diarrhea. NaCl absorption involves coupling of Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger(s) primarily with Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (Nhe3) at the apical membrane of intestinal epithelia. Identity of the coupling Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger(s) was investigated using mice with gene-targeted knockout (KO) of Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchangers: Slc26a3, down-regulated in adenoma (Dra) or Slc26a6, putative anion transporter-1 (Pat-1).

Effect of Fat Feeding on Pro-oxidant and Anti-oxidant Enzyme Systems in Rat Intestine: Possible Role in the Turnover of Enterocytes

Digestive Diseases and Sciences. Jun, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 18989782

Immature epithelial cells generated in the crypt base undergo differentiation while progressing to the villus tip, where the cells upon apoptosis are detached from the underlying muscular tissue. We previously reported that lipid peroxidation might be involved in the turnover of enterocytes across the crypt-villus axis in rat intestine (Dig Dis Sci 52:1840-1844, 2007). To examine whether long-term feeding of fat with different fatty-acid composition influences this process, in the present study we investigated the effect of feeding fish oil (n - 3) and corn oil (n - 6) polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipid per-oxidation and anti-oxidant systems in different epithelial cell fractions isolated in rat intestine. Feeding fish oil or corn oil markedly enhanced lipid per-oxidation levels of enterocytes throughout villus height compared with control, but there was no difference in the distribution profile of pro- and anti-oxidant enzyme systems and lipid per-oxidation across the crypt-villus axis under these conditions. Analysis of lipid peroxidation levels in different cell fractions revealed that the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were 9- to 11-fold higher at the villus tip compared with at the crypt base. The activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were 2- to 5-fold higher in villus tip compared to the crypt region. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were 6- to 8-fold high at the crypt base compared with at villus tip cells. Immunocytolocalization of superoxide dismutase showed high staining in crypt base compared with that in villus, tip cells. These findings further suggest that generation of reactive oxygen species in enterocytes across the crypt-villus axis may be involved in turnover of enterocytes across the crypt-villus unit in rat intestine.

PKC-dependent Stimulation of the Human MCT1 Promoter Involves Transcription Factor AP2

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Feb, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19033536

Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) plays an important role in the absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate in the human colon. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that phorbol ester, PMA (1 microM, 24 h), upregulates butyrate transport and MCT1 protein expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of MCT1 gene expression by PMA in the intestine are not known. In the present study, we showed that PMA (0.1 microM, 24 h) increased the MCT1 promoter activity (-871/+91) by approximately fourfold. A corresponding increase in MCT1 mRNA abundance in response to PMA was also observed. PMA-induced stimulation of MCT1 promoter activity was observed as early as 1 h and persisted until 24 h, suggesting that the effects of PMA are attributable to initial PKC activation. Kinase inhibitor and phosphorylation studies indicated that these effects may be mediated through activation of the atypical PKC-zeta isoform. 5'-deletion studies demonstrated that the MCT1 core promoter region (-229/+91) is the PMA-responsive region. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed the predominant involvement of potential activator protein 2 (AP2) binding site in the activation of MCT1 promoter activity by PMA. In addition, overexpression of AP2 in Caco-2 cells significantly increased MCT1 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. These findings showing the regulation of MCT1 promoter by PKC and AP2 are of significant importance for an understanding of the molecular regulation of SCFA absorption in the human intestine.

ROS, Hsp27, and IKKbeta Mediate Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) Activation of IkappaBa, NFkappaB, and IL-8

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. May, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19085995

Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is a sulfated polysaccharide that has been very widely used to induce inflammation in experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease in which the effects of pharmacologic and biologic therapies are tested. However, the precise mechanisms by which DSS induces inflammation have not been elucidated.

Role of Down-regulated in Adenoma Anion Exchanger in HCO3- Secretion Across Murine Duodenum

Gastroenterology. Mar, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19121635

The current model of duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion proposes that basal secretion results from Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange, whereas cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-stimulated secretion depends on a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel (Cftr)-mediated HCO(3)(-) conductance. However, discrepancies in applying the model suggest that Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange also contributes to cAMP-stimulated secretion. Of 2 candidate Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchangers, studies of putative anion transporter-1 knockout (KO) mice find little contribution of putative anion transporter-1 to basal or cAMP-stimulated secretion. Therefore, the role of down-regulated in adenoma (Dra) in duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion was investigated using DraKO mice.

Transcriptional Regulation of the Human Na+/H+ Exchanger NHE3 by Serotonin in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. May, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19303862

Serotonin (5-HT) decreases NHE2 and NHE3 activities under acute conditions in human intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we have investigated the effects of 5-HT on expression of the human NHE3 gene and the mechanisms underlying its transcriptional regulation in differentiated C2BBe1 cells. Treatment of the human intestinal epithelial cell line, C2BBe1, with 5-HT (20 microM) resulted in a significant decrease in NHE3 mRNA and protein expression. In transient transfection studies, 5-HT repressed the NHE3 promoter activity by approximately 55%. The repression of the NHE3 promoter activity in response to 5-HT was accompanied by reduced DNA-binding activity of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 to the NHE3 promoter without alteration in their nuclear levels. Pharmacological inhibitors of protein kinase C reversed the inhibitory effect of 5-HT on the promoter activity. Our data indicate that 5-HT suppresses the transcriptional activity of the NHE3 promoter and this effect may be mediated by PKCalpha and modulation of DNA-binding affinities of Sp1 and Sp3.

Mechanisms Underlying Modulation of Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) by Somatostatin in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 20501436

Somatostatin (SST), an important neuropeptide of the gastrointestinal tract has been shown to stimulate sodium chloride absorption and inhibit chloride secretion in the intestine. However, the effects of SST on luminal butyrate absorption in the human intestine have not been investigated. Earlier studies from our group and others have shown that monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) plays an important role in the transport of butyrate in the human intestine. The present studies were undertaken to examine the effects of SST on butyrate uptake utilizing postconfluent human intestinal epithelial Caco2 cells. Apical SST treatment of Caco-2 cells for 30-60 min significantly increased butyrate uptake in a dose-dependent manner with maximal increase at 50 nM ( approximately 60%, P < 0.05). SST receptor 2 agonist, seglitide, mimicked the effects of SST on butyrate uptake. SST-mediated stimulation of butyrate uptake involved the p38 MAP kinase-dependent pathway. Kinetic studies demonstrated that SST increased the maximal velocity (V(max)) of the transporter by approximately twofold without any change in apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)). The higher butyrate uptake in response to SST was associated with an increase in the apical membrane levels of MCT1 protein parallel to a decrease in the intracellular MCT1 pool. MCT1 has been shown to interact specifically with CD147 glycoprotein/chaperone to facilitate proper expression and function of MCT1 at the cell surface. SST significantly enhanced the membrane levels of CD147 as well as its association with MCT1. This association was completely abolished by the specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, SB203580. Our findings demonstrate that increased MCT1 association with CD147 at the apical membrane in response to SST is p38 MAP kinase dependent and underlies the stimulatory effects of SST on butyrate uptake.

Platelet-activating Factor-induced NF-kappaB Activation and IL-8 Production in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Are Bcl10-dependent

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Apr, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19714753

Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent proinflammatory phospholipid mediator, has been implicated in inducing intestinal inflammation in diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, its mechanisms of inducing inflammatory responses are not fully understood. Therefore, studies were designed to explore the mechanisms of PAF-induced inflammatory cascade in intestinal epithelial cells.

Carrageenan-induced Innate Immune Response is Modified by Enzymes That Hydrolyze Distinct Galactosidic Bonds

The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. Oct, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19864123

The common food additive carrageenan (CGN) predictably induces intestinal inflammation in animal models. Mechanisms of CGN-induced nuclear factor κB and interleukin-8 (IL-8) stimulation include an immune-mediated pathway involving toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 (BCL10) and a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated pathway. To determine how the structure of CGN contributes to its initiation of inflammation through these two distinct mechanisms, we treated CGNs with galactosidases and carrageenases (CGNases) and determined the impact on IL-8 secretion and BCL10 production. Hydrolysis of CGN by the enzyme α-1→(3,6)-galactosidase significantly reduced increases in IL-8 and BCL10, but other galactosidases tested, including α-1→6-galactosidase, β-1→4-galactosidase and β-1→3,6-galactosidase, had no effect. In contrast, specific κ-CGNases or ι-CGNases, which hydrolyze β-1,4-galactosidic bonds, produced increases in IL-8 and BCL10 attributable to increased exposure of the immunogenic α-1→3-galactosidic epitope of CGN to TLR4. These results were consistent with induction of innate immune response by an interaction of TLR4 with the unusual α-d-Gal-(1→3)-d-Gal epitope present in CGN. Activation of the ROS-mediated pathway was unaffected by treatment of κ-CGN with either κ-CGNase (3 mg/L), α-1→(3,6)-galactosidase (20 mU/ml) or these enzymes in combination, indicating that changes in IL-8 production were attributable to the effects of induction of inflammation on the TLR4-BCL10-mediated innate immune pathway. These findings provide new information about the specificity of carbohydrate-protein interaction between CGN and TLR4 and may help to devise treatments that modify the immune reactivity induced by carbohydrate antigens.

B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10) is Required for NF-kappaB Production by Both Canonical and Noncanonical Pathways and for NF-kappaB-inducing Kinase (NIK) Phosphorylation

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jan, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19897484

B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10), the caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing protein involved in the etiology of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas, has been implicated in inflammatory processes in epithelial cells, as well as in immune cells. Experiments in this report indicate that BCL10 is required for activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB by both canonical and noncanonical pathways, following stimulation by the sulfated polysaccharide carrageenan (CGN). In wild type and IkappaB-kinase (IKK)alpha(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, increases in phospho-IkappaBalpha, nuclear NF-kappaB p65 (RelA) and p50, and KC, the mouse analog of human interleukin-8, were markedly reduced by silencing BCL10 or by exposure to the free radical scavenger Tempol. In IKKbeta(-/-) cells, BCL10 silencing, but not Tempol, reduced the CGN-induced increases in KC, phospho-NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK), cytoplasmic NF-kappaB p100, and nuclear NF-kappaB p52 and RelB, suggesting a BCL10 requirement for activation of the noncanonical pathway. In NCM460 cells, derived from normal, human colonic epithelium, the CGN-induced increases in NF-kappaB family members, p65, p50, p52, and RelB, were inhibited by BCL10 silencing. Although enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confocal images demonstrated no change in total NIK following CGN, increases in phospho-NIK in the wild type, IKKbeta(-/-) and IKKalpha(-/-) cells were inhibited by silencing BCL10. These findings indicate an upstream signaling role for BCL10, in addition to its effects on IKKgamma, the regulatory component of the IKK signalosome, and a requirement for BCL10 in both canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-kappaB activation. Also, the commonly used food additive carrageenan can be added to the short list of known activators of both pathways.

Mechanisms of Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) Mediated Stimulation of Intestinal Apical Cl-/OH- Exchange

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19910524

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a potent bioactive phospholipid, is a natural component of food products like soy and egg yolk. LPA modulates a number of epithelial functions and has been shown to inhibit cholera toxin-induced diarrhea. Antidiarrheal effects of LPA are known to be mediated by inhibiting chloride secretion. However, the effects of LPA on chloride absorption in the mammalian intestine are not known. The present studies examined the effects of LPA on apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchangers known to be involved in chloride absorption in intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were treated with LPA, and Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was measured as DIDS-sensitive (36)Cl(-) uptake. Cell surface biotinylation studies were performed to evaluate the effect of LPA on cell surface levels of apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchangers, downregulated in adenoma (DRA) (SLC26A3), and putative anion transporter-1 (SLC26A6). Treatment of Caco-2 cells with LPA (100 muM) significantly stimulated Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity. Specific agonist for LPA2 receptor mimicked the effects of LPA. LPA-mediated stimulation of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was dependent on activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Consistent with the functional activity, LPA treatment resulted in increased levels of DRA on the apical membrane. Our results demonstrate that LPA stimulates apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity and surface levels of DRA in intestinal epithelial cells. This increase in Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange may contribute to the antidiarrheal effects of LPA.

Mechanisms of Transcriptional Modulation of the Human Anion Exchanger SLC26A3 Gene Expression by IFN-{gamma}

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19940027

Two members of the SLC26 gene family, SLC26A3 or DRA (downregulated in adenoma) and SLC26A6 (putative anion transporter 1, PAT1), are known to play a major role in apical Cl(-)/OH(-) (HCO(3)(-)) exchange process in the human intestine. We have previously shown the inhibitory effects of IFN-gamma (30 ng/ml, 24 h) on both SLC26A3 and A6 expression and promoter activity. We also demonstrated that the effects of IFN-gamma on SLC26A6 gene expression were mediated via IRF-1 transcription factor. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the transcriptional modulation of SLC26A3 gene expression by IFN-gamma in the intestine are not known. The present studies were, therefore, designed to elucidate the signaling mechanisms and transcription factor(s) involved in mediating the inhibitory effects of IFN-gamma on DRA promoter (p--1183/+114) activity. Deletion analysis indicated that the IFN-gamma response element is located within the -1183 to -790 region, and sequence analysis of this region revealed the presence of potential gamma-activated site (GAS), a binding site (-933/-925 bp) for signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 1 (STAT1). Mutations in the potential GAS element abrogated the inhibitory effects of IFN-gamma. These studies provide evidence for the involvement of STAT1 in the inhibition of SLC26A3 gene expression by IFN-gamma in the human intestine.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Stimulates the Expression of SLC26A3 Via a Transcriptional Mechanism

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Mar, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20044511

Clinical efficacy of probiotics in treating various forms of diarrhea has been clearly established. However, mechanisms underlying antidiarrheal effects of probiotics are not completely defined. Diarrhea is caused either by decreased absorption or increased secretion of electrolytes and solutes in the intestine. In this regard, the electroneutral absorption of two major electrolytes, Na(+) and Cl(-), occurs mainly through the coupled operation of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers and Cl(-)/OH(-) exchangers. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) acutely stimulated Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity via an increase in the surface levels of the apical anion exchanger SLC26A3 (DRA). However, whether probiotics influence SLC26A3 expression and promoter activity has not been examined. The present studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate the long-term effects of LA on SLC26A3 expression and promoter activity. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with LA for 6-24 h resulted in a significant increase in Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity. DRA mRNA levels were also significantly elevated in response to LA treatment starting as early as 8 h. Additionally, the promoter activity of DRA was increased by more than twofold following 8 h LA treatment of Caco-2 cells. Similar to the in vitro studies, in vivo studies using mice gavaged with LA also showed significantly increased DRA mRNA ( approximately 4-fold) and protein expression in the colonic regions as assessed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. In conclusion, increase in DRA promoter activity and expression may contribute to the upregulation of intestinal electrolyte absorption and might underlie the potential antidiarrheal effects of LA.

Lipopolysaccharide-induced Activation of NF-κB Non-canonical Pathway Requires BCL10 Serine 138 and NIK Phosphorylations

Experimental Cell Research. Nov, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20466000

B-cell lymphoma/leukemia (BCL)-10 and reactive oxygen species mediate two pathways of NF-κB (RelA) activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human colonic epithelial cells. The pathway for LPS activation of RelB by the non-canonical pathway (RelB) in non-myeloid cells was not yet reported, but important for understanding the range of potential microbial LPS-induced effects in inflammatory bowel disease.

The Probiotic Lactobacillus Plantarum Counteracts TNF-{alpha}-induced Downregulation of SMCT1 Expression and Function

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Oct, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20671196

The major short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is produced in the colonic lumen by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Butyrate serves as primary fuel for the colonocytes and also ameliorates mucosal inflammation. Disturbed energy homeostasis seen in inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease patients has been attributed to impaired absorption of butyrate. Since sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SMCT1, SLC5A8) has recently been shown to play a role in Na(+)-coupled transport of monocarboxylates, including SCFA, such as luminal butyrate, we examined the effects of proinflammatory TNF-α on SMCT1 expression and function and potential anti-inflammatory role of probiotic Lactobacillus species in counteracting the TNF-α effects. Rat intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-6 or human intestinal Caco-2 cells were treated with TNF-α in the presence or absence of Lactobacilli culture supernatants (CS). TNF-α treatments for 24 h dose-dependently inhibited SMCT1-mediated, Na(+)-dependent butyrate uptake and SMCT1 mRNA expression in IEC-6 cells and SMCT1 promoter activity in Caco-2 cells. CS of L. plantarum (LP) stimulated Na(+)-dependent butyrate uptake (2.5-fold, P < 0.05), SMCT1 mRNA expression, and promoter activity. Furthermore, preincubating the cells with LP-CS followed by coincubation with TNF-α significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of TNF-α on SMCT1 function, expression, and promoter activity. In vivo, oral administration of live LP enhanced SMCT1 mRNA expression in the colonic and ileal tissues of C57BL/6 mice after 24 h. Efficacy of LP or their secreted soluble factors to stimulate SMCT1 expression and function and to counteract the inhibitory effects of TNF-α on butyrate absorption could have potential therapeutic value.

Stimulation of Apical Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) Exchanger, SLC26A3 by Neuropeptide Y is Lipid Raft Dependent

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Dec, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20884887

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an important proabsorptive hormone of the gastrointestinal tract has been shown to inhibit chloride secretion and stimulate NaCl absorption. However, mechanisms underlying the proabsorptive effects of NPY are not fully understood. The present studies were designed to examine the direct effects of NPY on apical Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity and the underlying mechanisms involved utilizing Caco2 cells. Our results showed that NPY (100 nM, 30 min) significantly increased Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity (∼2-fold). Selective NPY/Y1 or Y2 receptor agonists mimicked the effects of NPY. NPY-mediated stimulation of Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity involved the ERK1/2 MAP kinase-dependent pathway. Cell surface biotinylation studies showed that NPY does not alter DRA (apical Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchanger) surface expression, ruling out the involvement of membrane trafficking events. Interestingly, DRA was found to be predominantly expressed in the detergent-insoluble (DI) and low-density fractions (LDF) of human colonic apical membrane vesicles (AMVs) representing lipid rafts. Depletion of membrane cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, 10 mM, 1 h) remarkably decreased DRA expression in the DI fractions. Similar results were obtained in Triton-X 100-treated Caco2 plasma membranes. DRA association with lipid rafts in the DI and LDF fractions of Caco2 cells was significantly enhanced (∼45%) by NPY compared with control. MβCD significantly decreased Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity in Caco2 cells as measured by DIDS- or niflumic acid-sensitive ³⁶Cl⁻ uptake (∼50%). Our results demonstrate that NPY modulates Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity by enhancing the association of DRA with lipid rafts, thereby resulting in an increase in Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity. Our findings suggest that the alteration in the association of DRA with lipid rafts may contribute to the proabsorptive effects of NPY in the human intestine.

Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-induced Inflammation is Increased but Apoptosis is Inhibited by Common Food Additive Carrageenan

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20937806

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a homotrimeric, pleiotropic cytokine, is secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. TNF-α mediates both apoptosis and inflammation, stimulating an inflammatory cascade through the non-canonical pathway of NF-κB activation, leading to increased nuclear RelB and p52. In contrast, the common food additive carrageenan (CGN) stimulates inflammation through both the canonical and non-canonical pathways of NF-κB activation and utilizes the adaptor molecule BCL10 (B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 10). In a series of experiments, colonic epithelial cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts were treated with TNF-α and carrageenan in order to simulate the possible effects of exposure to dietary CGN in the setting of a TNF-α-mediated inflammatory disease process. A marked increase in secretion of IL-8 occurred, attributable to synergistic effects on phosphorylated NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) in the non-canonical pathway. TNF-α induced the ubiquitination of TRAF2 (TNF receptor-associated factor 2), which interacts with NIK, and CGN induced phosphorylation of BCL10, leading to increased NIK phosphorylation. These results suggest that TNF-α and CGN in combination act to increase NIK phosphorylation, thereby increasing activation of the non-canonical pathway of NF-κB activation. In contrast, the apoptotic effects of TNF-α, including activation of caspase-8 and PARP-1 (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1) fragmentation, were markedly reduced in the presence of CGN, and CGN caused reduced expression of Fas. These findings demonstrate that exposure to CGN drives TNF-α-stimulated cells toward inflammation rather than toward apoptotic cell death and suggest that CGN exposure may compromise the effectiveness of anti-TNF-α therapy.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Represses the Expression of NHE2 Through NF-κB Activation in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Model, C2BBe1

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Mar, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 20722069

High levels of proinflammatory cytokines are linked to pathogenesis of diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Na(+) absorption is compromised in IBD. The studies were designed to determine the effect of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on the expression and activity of NHE2, a Na(+) /H(+) exchanger (NHE) that is involved in transepithelial Na(+) absorption in intestinal epithelial cells.

Calcitonin Receptor-mediated CFTR Activation in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. Dec, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21251218

High levels of calcitonin (CT) observed in medullary thyroid carcinoma and other CT-secreting tumours cause severe diarrhoea. Previous studies have suggested that CT induces active chloride secretion. However, the involvement of CT receptor (CTR) and the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of intestinal electrolyte secreting intestinal epithelial cells have not been investigated. Therefore, current studies were undertaken to investigate the direct effects of CT on ion transport in intestinal epithelial cells. Real time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of CTR in intestinal epithelial T84 cells. Exposure of T84 cells to CT from the basolateral but not from apical side significantly increased short circuit current (I(SC) ) in a dose-dependent manner that was blocked by 1 μM of CTR antagonist, CT8-32. CT-induced I(SC) was blocked by replacing chloride in the bath solutions with equimolar gluconate and was significantly inhibited by the specific cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitor, CFTR(127inh). Further, biotinylation studies showed that CT increased CFTR levels on the apical membrane. The presence of either the Ca(2+) chelator, bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl (BAPTA-AM) ester or the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89, significantly inhibited I(SC) induced by CT (∼32-58% reduction). Response to CT was retained after permeabilization of the basolateral or the apical membranes of T84 cells with nystatin. In conclusion, the activation of CTR by CT induced chloride secretion across T84 monolayers via CFTR channel and the involvement of PKA- and Ca(2+) -dependent signalling pathways. These data elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying CT-induced diarrhoea.

Upregulation of P-glycoprotein by Probiotics in Intestinal Epithelial Cells and in the Dextran Sulfate Sodium Model of Colitis in Mice

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jun, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21350189

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediates efflux of xenobiotics and bacterial toxins from the intestinal mucosa into the lumen. Dysregulation of P-gp has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease. Certain probiotics have been shown to be effective in treating inflammatory bowel disease. However, direct effects of probiotics on P-gp are not known. Current studies examined the effects of Lactobacilli on P-gp function and expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 monolayers and a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis were utilized. P-gp activity was measured as verapamil-sensitive [(3)H]digoxin transepithelial flux. Multidrug resistant 1 (MDR1)/P-gp expression was measured by real-time quantitative PCR and immunoblotting. Culture supernatant (CS; 1:10 or 1:50, 24 h) of Lactobacillus acidophilus or Lactobacillus rhamnosus treatment of differentiated Caco-2 monolayers (21 days postplating) increased (∼3-fold) MDR1/P-gp mRNA and protein levels. L. acidophilus or L. rhamnosus CS stimulated P-gp activity (∼2-fold, P < 0.05) via phosphoinositide 3-kinase and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways. In mice, L. acidophilus or L. rhamnosus treatment (3 × 10(9) colony-forming units) increased mdr1a/P-gp mRNA and protein expression in the ileum and colon (2- to 3-fold). In the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model (3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days), the degree of colitis as judged by histological damage and myeloperoxidase activity was reduced by L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus treatment to DSS-treated mice blocked the reduced expression of mdr1a/P-gp mRNA and protein in the distal colon. These findings suggest that Lactobacilli or their soluble factors stimulate P-gp expression and function under normal and inflammatory conditions. These data provide insights into a novel mechanism involving P-gp upregulation in beneficial effects of probiotics in intestinal inflammatory disorders.

SREBP2 Mediates the Modulation of Intestinal NPC1L1 Expression by Curcumin

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jul, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21527728

Curcumin, the major phenolic compound in the spice turmeric, exhibits numerous biological effects, including lowering plasma cholesterol and preventing diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. The mechanisms underlying the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin are not fully understood. In this regard, intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) cholesterol transporter, the molecular target of intestinal cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe, plays an essential role in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. The current studies were designed to investigate the effect of curcumin on NPC1L1 function, expression, and promoter activity in intestinal Caco-2 monolayers. NPC1L1 function was evaluated by the measurement of ezetimibe-sensitive [(3)H]cholesterol esterification. Relative abundance of NPC1L1 mRNA and protein was evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Luciferase assays were used to measure NPC1L1 promoter activity. Our results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited ezetimibe-sensitive cholesterol esterification in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum decrease (by 52% compared with control) occurring at 50 μM concentration. Curcumin treatment of Caco-2 monolayers also significantly decreased NPC1L1 mRNA and protein expression. Similarly, the promoter activity of the NPC1L1 gene was inhibited significantly (55%) by 50 μM curcumin. The decrease in NPC1L1 promoter activity by curcumin was associated with a reduction in the expression and the DNA-binding activity of the sterol response element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) transcription factor. Furthermore, the overexpression of active SREBP2 protected NPC1L1 from the inhibitory effect of curcumin. Our studies demonstrate that curcumin directly modulates intestinal NPC1L1 expression via transcriptional regulation and the involvement of SREBP2 transcription factor.

Specific Effects of BCL10 Serine Mutations on Phosphorylations in Canonical and Noncanonical Pathways of NF-κB Activation Following Carrageenan

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Sep, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21700900

To determine the impact of B cell leukemia/lymphoma (BCL) 10 on the phosphorylation of crucial mediators in NF-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways, human colonic epithelial cells were exposed to carrageenan (CGN), a sulfated polysaccharide commonly used as a food additive and known to induce NF-κB nuclear translocation by both canonical and noncanonical pathways. Phosphorylations of intermediates in inflammatory cascades, including NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) at Thr(559), transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase (TAK) 1 at Thr(184), Thr(187), and Ser(192), and inhibitory factor κBα (IκBα) at Ser(32), were examined following mutation of BCL10 at Ser(138) and at Ser(218). Specific phosphoantibodies were used for detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblot, and confocal microscopy of differences in phosphorylation following transfection by mutated BCL10. Both mutations demonstrated dominant-negative effects, with inhibition of phospho(Ser(32))-IκBα to less than control levels. Both of the BCL10 mutations reduced the CGN-induced increases in nuclear RelA and p50, but only the Ser(138) mutation inhibited the CGN-induced increases in nuclear RelB and p52 and in NIK Thr(559) phosphorylation. Hence, the phosphorylation of BCL10 Ser(138), but not Ser(218), emerged as a critical event in activation of the noncanonical pathway of NF-κB activation. Either BCL10 Ser(138) or Ser(218) mutation inhibited the phosphorylation of TAK1 at Thr(184) and at Thr(187), but not at Ser(192). These findings indicate that BCL10 phosphorylations act upstream of phosphorylations of NIK, TAK1, and IκBα and differentially affect the canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation.

Transcriptional Regulation of the Intestinal Luminal Na⁺ and Cl⁻ Transporters

The Biochemical Journal. Apr, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21726200

The epithelial apical membrane Na+/H+ exchangers [NHE (sodium hydrogen exchanger)2 and NHE3] and Cl-/HCO3- exchangers [DRA (down-regulated in adenoma) and PAT-1 (putative anion transporter 1)] are key luminal membrane transporters involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption in the mammalian intestine. During the last decade, there has been a surge of studies focusing on the short-term regulation of these electrolyte transporters, particularly for NHE3 regulation. However, the long-term regulation of the electrolyte transporters, involving transcriptional mechanisms and transcription factors that govern their basal regulation or dysregulation in diseased states, has only now started to unfold with the cloning and characterization of their gene promoters. The present review provides a detailed analysis of the core promoters of NHE2, NHE3, DRA and PAT-1 and outlines the transcription factors involved in their basal regulation as well as in response to both physiological (butyrate, protein kinases and probiotics) and pathophysiological (cytokines and high levels of serotonin) stimuli. The information available on the transcriptional regulation of the recently identified NHE8 isoform is also highlighted. Therefore the present review bridges a gap in our knowledge of the transcriptional mechanisms underlying the alterations in the gene expression of intestinal epithelial luminal membrane Na+ and Cl- transporters involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption. An understanding of the mechanisms of the modulation of gene expression of these transporters is important for a better assessment of the pathophysiology of diarrhoea associated with inflammatory and infectious diseases and may aid in designing better management protocols.

A Novel Facet to Consider for the Effects of Butyrate on Its Target Cells. Focus on "The Short-chain Fatty Acid Butyrate is a Substrate of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein"

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Nov, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21832244

PKCδ-dependent Activation of ERK1/2 Leads to Upregulation of the Human NHE2 Transcriptional Activity in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line C2BBe1

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Feb, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22052014

The apical Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) isoform NHE2 is involved in transepithelial Na+ absorption in the intestine. Our earlier studies have shown that mitogenic agent phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induces the expression of NHE2 through activation of transcription factor early growth response-1 (Egr-1) and its interactions with the NHE2 promoter. However, the signaling pathways involved in transcriptional stimulation of NHE2 in response to PMA in the intestinal epithelial cells are not known. Chemical inhibitors and genetic approaches were used to investigate the signaling pathways responsible for the stimulation of NHE2 expression by PMA via Egr-1 induction. We show that, in response to PMA, PKCδ, a member of novel PKC isozymes, and MEK-ERK1/2 pathway of mitogen-activated protein kinases stimulate the NHE2 expression in C2BBe1 intestinal epithelial cells. PMA rapidly and transiently induced activation of PKCδ. Small inhibitory RNA-mediated knockdown of PKCδ blocked the stimulatory effect of PMA on the NHE2 promoter activity. In addition, blockade of PKCδ by rottlerin, a PKCδ-specific inhibitor, and ERK1/2 by U0126, a MEK-ERK inhibitor, abrogated PMA-induced Egr-1 expression. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that inhibition of ERK1/2 activation prevents translocation of PMA-induced Egr-1 into the nucleus. Consistent with these data, PMA-induced Egr-1 interaction with the NHE2 promoter region was prevented in nuclear extracts from U0126-pretreated cells. In conclusion, our data provide the first evidence that the stimulatory effect of PMA on NHE2 expression is mediated through the initial activation of PKCδ, subsequent PKCδ-dependent activation of MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and stimulation of Egr-1 expression. Furthermore, we show that transcription factor Egr-1 acts as an intermediate effector molecule that links the upstream signaling cues to the long-term stimulation of NHE2 expression by PMA in C2BBe1 cells.

LPA Stimulates Intestinal DRA Gene Transcription Via LPA2 Receptor, PI3K/AKT, and C-Fos-dependent Pathway

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Mar, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22159277

DRA (downregulated in adenoma) or SLC26A3 is the major apical anion exchanger mediating Cl(-) absorption in intestinal epithelial cells. Disturbances in DRA function and expression have been implicated in diarrheal conditions such as congenital chloride diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases. Previous studies have shown that DRA is subject to regulation by short-term and transcriptional mechanisms. In this regard, we have recently shown that short-term treatment by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an important bioactive phospholipid, stimulates Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-)(OH(-)) exchange activity via an increase in DRA surface levels in human intestinal epithelial cells. However, the long-term effects of LPA on DRA at the level of gene transcription have not been examined. The present studies were aimed at investigating the effects of LPA on DRA function and expression as well as elucidating the mechanisms underlying its transcriptional regulation. Long-term LPA treatment increased the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activity in Caco-2 cells. LPA treatment (50-100 μM) of Caco-2 cells significantly stimulated DRA mRNA levels and DRA promoter activity (-1183/+114). This increase in DRA promoter activity involved the LPA2 receptor and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways. Progressive deletions from -1183/+114 to -790/+114 abrogated the stimulatory effects of LPA, indicating that the -1183/-790 promoter region harbors LPA response elements. Utilizing EMSA and mutational studies, our results showed that LPA induced the DRA promoter activity in a c-Fos-dependent manner. LPA also increased the protein expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos but not c-Jun enhanced the DRA promoter activity. This increase in DRA transcription in response to LPA indicates that LPA may act as an antidiarrheal agent and could be exploited for the treatment of diarrhea associated with inflammatory or infectious diseases of the gut.

Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli Inhibits Ileal Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter ASBT

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. May, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22403793

Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is responsible for the absorption of bile acids from the intestine. A decrease in ASBT function and expression has been implicated in diarrhea associated with intestinal inflammation. Whether infection with pathogenic microorganisms such as the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) affect ASBT activity is not known. EPEC is a food-borne enteric pathogen that translocates bacterial effector molecules via type three secretion system (TTSS) into host cells and is a major cause of infantile diarrhea. We investigated the effects of EPEC infection on ileal ASBT function utilizing human intestinal Caco2 cells and HEK-293 cells stably transfected with ASBT-V5 fusion protein (2BT cells). ASBT activity was significantly inhibited following 60 min infection with EPEC but not with nonpathogenic E. coli. Mutations in bacterial escN, espA, espB, and espD, the genes encoding for the elements of bacterial TTSS, ablated EPEC inhibitory effect on ASBT function. Furthermore, mutation in the bacterial BFP gene encoding for bundle-forming pili abrogated the inhibition of ASBT by EPEC, indicating the essential role for bacterial aggregation and the early attachment. The inhibition by EPEC was associated with a significant decrease in the V(max) of the transporter and a reduction in the level of ASBT on the plasma membrane. The inhibition of ASBT by EPEC was blocked in the presence of protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors. Our studies provide novel evidence for the alterations in the activity of ASBT by EPEC infection and suggest a possible effect for EPEC in influencing intestinal bile acid homeostasis.

Prolongation of Carrageenan-induced Inflammation in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells by Activation of an NFκB-BCL10 Loop

Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Aug, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22579587

Carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide that is widely used as a food additive, induces inflammatory responses in animal models and human cells. The carrageenan-induced inflammatory cascades involve toll-like receptor (TLR)4- and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma (BCL)10-dependent activation of NF-κB, leading to increased IL-8 production. Translocations involving BCL10 in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are associated with constitutive activation of NF-κB. This report presents a mechanism by which carrageenan exposure leads to prolonged activation of both BCL10 and NF-κB in human colonic epithelial cells. Study findings demonstrate that nuclear RelA and RelB bind to an NF-κB binding motif in the BCL10 promoter in human colonic epithelial NCM460 and HT-29 cells. In vitro oligonucleotide binding assay, non-radioactive gel shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) indicate binding of RelA and RelB to the BCL10 promoter. Prolonged inflammation follows activation of the BCL10-NFκB inflammatory loop in response to carrageenan, shown by increased BCL10, RelA, and IL-8 for 36 to 48h and increased RelB for 24h following withdrawal of carrageenan after 12h. In contrast, exposure to dextran sulfate sodium, which does not cause inflammation through TLR4 and BCL10 in the colonic epithelial cells, did not provoke prolonged activation of inflammation. The carrageenan-enhanced BCL10 promoter activity was blocked by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and MB-132 which inhibit NF-κB activation. These results indicate that NF-κB binding to the BCL10 promoter can lead to prolonged activation of the carrageenan-induced inflammatory cascade by a transcriptional mechanism involving an NF-κB-BCL10 loop.

A Novel Nutrient Sensing Mechanism Underlies Substrate-induced Regulation of Monocarboxylate Transporter-1

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22982338

Monocarboxylate transporter isoform-1 (MCT1) plays an important role in the absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon. Butyrate, a major SCFA, serves as the primary energy source for the colonic mucosa, maintains epithelial integrity, and ameliorates intestinal inflammation. Previous studies have shown substrate (butyrate)-induced upregulation of MCT1 expression and function via transcriptional mechanisms. The present studies provide evidence that short-term MCT1 regulation by substrates could be mediated via a novel nutrient sensing mechanism. Short-term regulation of MCT1 by butyrate was examined in vitro in human intestinal C2BBe1 and rat intestinal IEC-6 cells and ex vivo in rat intestinal mucosa. Effects of pectin feeding on MCT1, in vivo, were determined in rat model. Butyrate treatment (30-120 min) of C2BBe1 cells increased MCT1 function {p-(chloromercuri) benzene sulfonate (PCMBS)-sensitive [(14)C]butyrate uptake} in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. The effects were associated with decreased intracellular cAMP levels, increased V(max) of butyrate uptake, and GPR109A-dependent increase in apical membrane MCT1 level. Nicotinic acid, an agonist for the SCFA receptor GPR109A, also increased MCT1 function and decreased intracellular cAMP. Pectin feeding increased apical membrane MCT1 levels and nicotinate-induced transepithelial butyrate flux in rat colon. Our data provide strong evidence for substrate-induced enhancement of MCT1 surface expression and function via a novel nutrient sensing mechanism involving GPR109A as a SCFA sensor.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Upregulates Intestinal NHE3 Expression and Function

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Dec, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23086913

A major mechanism of electroneutral NaCl absorption in the human ileum and colon involves coupling of Na(+)/H(+) and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchangers. Disturbances in these mechanisms have been implicated in diarrheal conditions. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus have been indicated to be beneficial in the management of gastrointestinal disorders, including diarrhea. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying antidiarrheal effects of probiotics have not been fully understood. We have previously demonstrated Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) to stimulate Cl(-)/HCO3- exchange activity via an increase in the surface levels and expression of the Cl(-)/HCO3- exchanger DRA in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of LA on NHE3, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger involved in the coupled electroneutral NaCl absorption, are not known. Current studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate the effects of LA on the function and expression of NHE3 and to determine the mechanisms involved. Treatment of Caco2 cells with LA or its conditioned culture supernatant (CS) for 8-24 h resulted in a significant increase in Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity, mRNA, and protein levels of NHE3. LA-CS upregulation of NHE3 function and expression was also observed in SK-CO15 cells, a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line. Additionally, LA treatment increased NHE3 promoter activity, suggesting involvement of transcriptional mechanisms. In vivo, mice gavaged with live LA showed significant increase in NHE3 mRNA and protein expression in the ileum and colonic regions. In conclusion, LA-induced increase in NHE3 expression may contribute to the upregulation of intestinal electrolyte absorption and might underlie the potential antidiarrheal effects of probiotics.

D-Glucose Modulates Intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) Gene Expression Via Transcriptional Regulation

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jan, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23139223

The expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) cholesterol transporter has been shown to be elevated in patients with diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia such as diabetes mellitus. High levels of glucose were shown to directly increase the expression of NPC1L1 in intestinal epithelial cells, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. The present studies were, therefore, undertaken to examine the transcriptional regulation of NPC1L1 expression in human intestinal Caco2 cells in response to glucose. Removal of glucose from the culture medium of Caco2 cells for 24 h significantly decreased the NPC1L1 mRNA, protein expression, as well as the promoter activity. Glucose replenishment significantly increased the promoter activity of NPC1L1 in a dose-dependent manner compared with control cells. Exposure of Caco2 cells to nonmetabolizable form of glucose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucopyranose (OMG) had no effect on NPC1L1 promoter activity, indicating that the observed effects are dependent on glucose metabolism. Furthermore, glucose-mediated increase in promoter activity was abrogated in the presence of okadaic acid, suggesting the involvement of protein phosphatases. Glucose effects on several deletion constructs of NPC1L1 promoter demonstrated that cis elements mediating the effects of glucose are located in the region between -291 and +56 of NPC1L1 promoter. Consistent with the effects of glucose removal on NPC1L1 expression in Caco2 cells, 24-h fasting resulted in a significant decrease in the relative expression of NPC1L1 in mouse jejunum. In conclusion, glucose appears to directly modulate NPC1L1 expression via transcriptional mechanisms and the involvement of phosphatase-dependent pathways.

Regulation of Intestinal Serotonin Transporter Expression Via Epigenetic Mechanisms: Role of HDAC2

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Feb, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23195070

The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) facilitates clearance of extracellular 5-HT by its uptake and internalization. Decreased expression of SERT and consequent high 5-HT levels have been implicated in various diarrheal disorders. Thus, appropriate regulation of SERT is critical for maintenance of 5-HT homeostasis in health and disease. Previous studies demonstrated that SERT is regulated via posttranslational and transcriptional mechanisms. However, the role of epigenetic mechanisms in SERT regulation is not known. Current studies investigated the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition on SERT expression and delineated the mechanisms. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with the pan-HDAC inhibitors butyrate (5 mM) and trichostatin (TSA, 1 μM) decreased SERT mRNA and protein levels. Butyrate- or TSA-induced decrease in SERT was associated with decreased activity of human SERT (hSERT) promoter 1 (upstream of exon 1a), but not hSERT promoter 2 (upstream of exon 2). Butyrate + TSA did not show an additive effect on SERT expression, indicating that mechanisms involving histone hyperacetylation may be involved. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated enrichment of the hSERT promoter 1 (flanking nt -250/+2) with tetra-acetylated histone H3 or H4, which was increased (~3-fold) by butyrate. Interestingly, specific inhibition of HDAC2 (but not HDAC1) utilizing small interfering RNA decreased SERT mRNA and protein levels. The decrease in SERT expression by HDAC inhibition was recapitulated in an in vivo model. SERT mRNA levels were decreased in the ileum and colon of mice fed pectin (increased availability of butyrate) compared with controls fed a fiber-free diet (~50-60%). Our results identify a novel role of HDAC2 as a regulator of SERT gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells.

Keratinocyte Growth Factor-2 Stimulates P-glycoprotein Expression and Function in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Mar, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23328208

Intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp/multidrug resistance 1), encoded by the ATP-binding cassette B1 gene, is primarily involved in the transepithelial efflux of toxic metabolites and xenobiotics from the mucosa into the gut lumen. Reduced Pgp function and expression has been shown to be associated with intestinal inflammatory disorders. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF2) has emerged as a potential target for modulation of intestinal inflammation and maintenance of gut mucosal integrity. Whether KGF2 directly regulates Pgp in the human intestine is not known. Therefore, the present studies were undertaken to determine the modulation of Pgp by KGF2 using Caco-2 cells. Short-term treatment of Caco-2 cells with KGF2 (10 ng/ml, 1 h) increased Pgp activity (~2-fold, P < 0.05) as measured by verapamil-sensitive [(3)H]digoxin flux. This increase in Pgp function was associated with an increase in surface Pgp levels. The specific fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) antagonist PD-161570 blocked the KGF2-mediated increase in Pgp activity. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by PD-98059 attenuated the stimulatory effects of KGF2 on Pgp activity. Small-interfering RNA knockdown of Erk1/2 MAPK blocked the increase in surface Pgp levels by KGF2. Long-term treatment with KGF2 (10 ng/ml, 24 h) also significantly increased PgP activity, mRNA, protein expression, and promoter activity. The long-term effects of KGF2 on Pgp promoter activity were also blocked by the FGFR antagonist and mediated by the Erk1/2 MAPK pathway. In conclusion, our findings define the posttranslational and transcriptional mechanisms underlying stimulation of Pgp function and expression by KGF2 that may contribute to the beneficial effects of KGF2 in intestinal inflammatory disorders.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Alleviates Platelet-activating Factor-induced Inflammatory Responses in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

PloS One. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24130731

Probiotics have been used as alternative prevention and therapy modalities in intestinal inflammatory disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Pathophysiology of IBD and NEC includes the production of diverse lipid mediators, including platelet-activating factor (PAF) that mediate inflammatory responses in the disease. PAF is known to activate NF-κB, however, the mechanisms of PAF-induced inflammation are not fully defined. We have recently described a novel PAF-triggered pathway of NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), requiring the pivotal role of the adaptor protein Bcl10 and its interactions with CARMA3 and MALT1. The current studies examined the potential role of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus in reversing the PAF-induced, Bcl10-dependent NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in IECs. PAF treatment (5 µM×24 h) of NCM460 and Caco-2 cells significantly increased nuclear p65 NF-κB levels and IL-8 secretion (2-3-fold, P<0.05), compared to control, which were blocked by pretreatment of the cells for 6 h with L. acidophilus (LA) or its culture supernatant (CS), followed by continued treatments with PAF for 24 h. LA-CS also attenuated PAF-induced increase in Bcl10 mRNA and protein levels and Bcl10 promoter activity. LA-CS did not alter PAF-induced interaction of Bcl10 with CARMA3, but attenuated Bcl10 interaction with MALT1 and also PAF-induced ubiquitination of IKKγ. Efficacy of bacteria-free CS of LA in counteracting PAF-induced inflammatory cascade suggests that soluble factor(s) in the CS of LA mediate these effects. These results define a novel mechanism by which probiotics counteract PAF-induced inflammation in IECs.

Extracellular Acidosis Stimulates NHE2 Expression Through Activation of Transcription Factor Egr-1 in the Intestinal Epithelial Cells

PloS One. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24376510

Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs) play important roles in regulating internal pH (pHi), cell volume and neutral Na(+) absorption in the human intestine. Earlier studies have shown that low extracellular pH (pHe) and metabolic acidosis increases the expression and function of NHE1-3 genes. However, transcriptional mechanisms involved remained unknown. Therefore, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying acid-induced NHE2 expression in C2BBe1 and SK-CO15 intestinal epithelial cells. Assessing total RNA and protein by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, displayed significant increases in the NHE2 mRNA and protein levels in cells exposed to acidic media (pH 6.5 and 6.7) compared to normal medium. Acid treatment was also associated with a significant enhancement in NHE2 transport activity. Quantification of the heterogeneous nuclear RNA indicated that the rate of NHE2 transcription was increased in response to acid. Furthermore, acid caused a significant increase in NHE2 promoter activity confirming transcriptional upregulation. Through functional and mutational studies the acid-response element was mapped to a 15-nucleotide GC-rich sequence at bp -337 to -323 upstream from the transcription start site. We previously identified this element as an overlapping Egr-1/Sp1/Egr-1 motif that was essential for the NHE2 upregulation by mitogen-induced transcription factor Egr-1. Cells exposed to acid exhibited a temporal increase in Egr-1 mRNA and protein expression. These events were followed by Egr-1 nuclear accumulation, as detected by immunofluorescence microscopy, and potentiated its in vitro and in vivo interaction with the NHE2 promoter. Disruption of ESE motif and knockdown of Egr-1 expression by targeted small interfering RNA abrogated the acid-induced NHE2 transcriptional activity. These data indicate that the acid-dependent NHE2 stimulation is implemented by transcriptional upregulation of NHE2 via acid-induced Egr-1 in the intestinal epithelial cells.

Translational Repression of SLC26A3 by MiR-494 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24177028

SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)] is a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption in the mammalian intestine. Altered DRA expression levels are associated with infectious and inflammatory diarrheal diseases. Therefore, it is critical to understand the regulation of DRA expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small RNAs that regulate protein expression via blocking the translation and/or promoting mRNA degradation. To investigate potential modulation of DRA expression by miRNA, five different in silico algorithms were used to predict the miRNAs that target DRA. Of these miRNAs, miR-494 was shown to have a highly conserved putative binding site in the DRA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) compared with other DRA-targeting miRNAs in vertebrates. Transfection with pmirGLO dual luciferase vector containing DRA 3'-UTR (pmirGLO-3'-UTR DRA) resulted in a significant decrease in relative luciferase activity compared with empty vector. Cotransfection of the DRA 3'-UTR luciferase vector with a miR-494 mimic further decreased luciferase activity compared with cells transfected with negative control. The transfection of a miR-494 mimic into Caco-2 and T-84 cells significantly increased the expression of miR-494 and concomitantly decreased the DRA protein expression. Mutation of the seed sequences for miR-494 in 3'-UTR of DRA abrogated the effect of miR-494 on 3'-UTR. These data demonstrate a novel regulatory mechanism of DRA expression via miR-494 and indicate that targeting this microRNA may serve to be a potential therapeutic strategy for diarrheal diseases.

Overactivation of Intestinal SREBP2 in Mice Increases Serum Cholesterol

PloS One. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24465397

Sterol Response Element Binding Protein 2 (SREBP2) transcription factor is a master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Treatment with statins, inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, activates intestinal SREBP2, which may hinder their cholesterol-lowering effects. Overactivation of SREBP2 in mouse liver was shown to have no effect on plasma cholesterol. However, the influence of activating intestinal SREBP2 on plasma cholesterol is not known. We have generated a novel transgenic mouse model with intestine specific overexpression of active SREBP2 (ISR2) driven by villin promoter. ISR2 mice showed overexpression of active SREBP2 specifically in the intestine. Microarray analysis of jejunal RNA from ISR2 mice showed a significant increase in genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in jejunum and liver (mg/g protein) were significantly increased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. Serum Cholesterol was significantly increased in VLDL and LDL fractions whereas the level of serum triglycerides was decreased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. In conclusion, activation of intestinal SREBP2 alone seems to be sufficient to increase plasma cholesterol, highlighting the essential role of intestine in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the body.

Epigenetic Modulation of Intestinal Cholesterol Transporter Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) Gene Expression by DNA Methylation

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24904062

Intestinal NPC1L1 transporter is essential for cholesterol absorption and the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in the body. NPC1L1 is differentially expressed along the gastrointestinal tract with very low levels in the colon as compared with the small intestine. This study was undertaken to examine whether DNA methylation was responsible for segment-specific expression of NPC1L1. Treatment of mice with 5-azacytidine (i.p.) resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in NPC1L1 mRNA expression in the colon. The lack of expression of NPC1L1 in the normal colon was associated with high levels of methylation in the area flanking the 3-kb fragment upstream of the initiation site of the mouse NPC1L1 gene in mouse colon as analyzed by EpiTYPER® MassARRAY®. The high level of methylation in the colon was observed in specific CpG dinucleotides and was significantly decreased in response to 5-azacytidine. Similar to mouse NPC1L1, 5-azacytidine treatment also increased the level of human NPC1L1 mRNA expression in the intestinal HuTu-80 cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Silencing the expression of DNA methyltransferase DNMT1, -2, -3A, and -3B alone by siRNA did not affect NPC1L1 expression in HuTu-80 cells. However, the simultaneous attenuation of DNMT1 and -3B expression caused a significant increase in NPC1L1 mRNA expression as compared with control. Also, in vitro methylation of the human NPC1L1 promoter significantly decreased NPC1L1 promoter activity in human intestinal Caco2 cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrated for the first time that DNA methylation in the promoter region of the NPC1L1 gene appears to be a major mechanism underlying differential expression of NPC1L1 along the length of the gastrointestinal tract.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Attenuates Downregulation of DRA Function and Expression in Inflammatory Models

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25059823

Probiotics, including Lactobacilli, are commensal bacteria that have been used in clinical trials and experimental models for the prevention and treatment of diarrheal disorders. Our previous studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) and its culture supernatant (CS) stimulated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity, acutely via an increase in the surface levels of downregulated in adenoma (DRA, SLC26A3) and in long-term treatments via increasing its expression involving transcriptional mechanisms. However, the role of LA in modulating DRA activity under inflammatory conditions is not known. Current in vitro studies using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells examined the efficacy of LA or its CS in counteracting the inhibitory effects of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) on Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity. Pretreatment of cells with LA or LA-CS for 1 h followed by coincubation with IFN-γ significantly alleviated the inhibitory effects of IFN-γ on Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity. In the in vivo model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis (3% in drinking water for 7 days) in C57BL/6J mice, administration of live LA (3 × 10(9) colony-forming units) via oral gavage attenuated colonic inflammation. LA administration also counteracted the colitis-induced decrease in DRA mRNA and protein levels. Efficacy of LA or its secreted soluble factors in alleviating inflammation and inflammation-associated dysregulation of DRA activity could justify their therapeutic potential in inflammatory diarrheal diseases.

Probiotic Bifidobacterium Species Stimulate Human SLC26A3 Gene Function and Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Dec, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25143346

SLC26A3, or downregulated in adenoma (DRA), plays a major role in mediating Cl(-) absorption in the mammalian intestine. Disturbances in DRA function and expression have been implicated in intestinal disorders such as congenital Cl(-) diarrhea and gut inflammation. We previously showed that an increase in DRA function and expression by Lactobacillus acidophilus and its culture supernatant (CS) might underlie antidiarrheal effects of this probiotic strain. However, the effects of Bifidobacterium species, important inhabitants of the human colon, on intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity are not known. Our current results demonstrate that CS derived from Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium bifidum increased anion exchange activity in Caco-2 cells (∼1.8- to 2.4-fold). Consistent with the increase in DRA function, CS also increased the protein, as well as the mRNA, level of DRA (but not putative anion transporter 1). CS of all three Bifidobacterium sp. increased DRA promoter activity (-1,183/+114 bp) in Caco-2 cells (1.5- to 1.8-fold). Furthermore, the increase in DRA mRNA expression by CS of B. breve and B. infantis was blocked in the presence of the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D (5 μM) and the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway inhibitor U0126 (10 μM). Administration of live B. breve, B. infantis, and B. bifidum by oral gavage to mice for 24 h increased DRA mRNA and protein levels in the colon. These data demonstrate an upregulation of DRA via activation of the ERK1/2 pathway that may underlie potential antidiarrheal effects of Bifidobacterium sp.

BL-7010 Demonstrates Specific Binding to Gliadin and Reduces Gluten-associated Pathology in a Chronic Mouse Model of Gliadin Sensitivity

PloS One. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25365555

Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder in individuals that carry DQ2 or DQ8 MHC class II haplotypes, triggered by the ingestion of gluten. There is no current treatment other than a gluten-free diet (GFD). We have previously shown that the BL-7010 copolymer poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-styrene sulfonate) (P(HEMA-co-SS)) binds with higher efficiency to gliadin than to other proteins present in the small intestine, ameliorating gliadin-induced pathology in the HLA-HCD4/DQ8 model of gluten sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of two batches of BL-7010 to interact with gliadin, essential vitamins and digestive enzymes not previously tested, and to assess the ability of the copolymer to reduce gluten-associated pathology using the NOD-DQ8 mouse model, which exhibits more significant small intestinal damage when challenged with gluten than HCD4/DQ8 mice. In addition, the safety and systemic exposure of BL-7010 was evaluated in vivo (in rats) and in vitro (genetic toxicity studies). In vitro binding data showed that BL-7010 interacted with high affinity with gliadin and that BL-7010 had no interaction with the tested vitamins and digestive enzymes. BL-7010 was effective at preventing gluten-induced decreases in villus-to-crypt ratios, intraepithelial lymphocytosis and alterations in paracellular permeability and putative anion transporter-1 mRNA expression in the small intestine. In rats, BL-7010 was well-tolerated and safe following 14 days of daily repeated administration of 3000 mg/kg. BL-7010 did not exhibit any mutagenic effect in the genetic toxicity studies. Using complementary animal models and chronic gluten exposure the results demonstrate that administration of BL-7010 is effective and safe and that it is able to decrease pathology associated with gliadin sensitization warranting the progression to Phase I trials in humans.

N-glycosylation is Essential for Ileal ASBT Function and Protection Against Proteases

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25855079

The bile acid transporter ASBT is a glycoprotein responsible for active absorption of bile acids. Inhibiting ASBT function and bile acid absorption is an attractive approach to lower plasma cholesterol and improve glucose imbalance in diabetic patients. Deglycosylation of ASBT was shown to decrease its function. However, the exact roles of N-glycosylation of ASBT, and how it affects its function, is not known. Current studies investigated the roles of N-glycosylation in ASBT protein stability and protection against proteases utilizing HEK-293 cells stably transfected with ASBT-V5 fusion protein. ASBT-V5 protein was detected as two bands with molecular mass of ~41 and ~35 kDa. Inhibition of glycosylation by tunicamycin significantly decreased ASBT activity and shifted ASBT bands to ~30 kDa, representing a deglycosylated protein. Treatment of total cellular lysates with PNGase F or Endo H glycosidases showed that the upper 41-kDa band represents a fully mature N-acetylglucosamine-rich glycoprotein and the lower 35-kDa band represents a mannose-rich core glycoprotein. Studies with the glycosylation deficient ASBT mutant (N10Q) showed that the N-glycosylation is not essential for ASBT targeting to plasma membrane. However, mature glycosylation significantly increased the half-life and protected ASBT protein from digestion with trypsin. Incubating the cells with high glucose (25 mM) for 48 h increased mature glycosylated ASBT along with an increase in its function. These results unravel novel roles for N-glycosylation of ASBT and suggest that high levels of glucose alter the composition of the glycan and may contribute to the increase in ASBT function in diabetes mellitus.

All-trans-retinoic Acid Increases SLC26A3 DRA (Down-regulated in Adenoma) Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Via HNF-1β

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25887398

All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is an active vitamin A derivative known to modulate a number of physiological processes, including growth and development, differentiation, and gene transcription. The protective effect of ATRA in gut inflammation and diarrheal diseases has been documented. In this regard, down-regulated in adenoma (DRA, a key luminal membrane Cl(-) transporter involved in NaCl absorption) has been shown to be suppressed in intestinal inflammation. This suppression of DRA is associated with diarrheal phenotype. Therefore, current studies were undertaken to examine the effects of ATRA on DRA expression. DRA mRNA levels were significantly elevated (∼4-fold) in response to ATRA with induction starting as early as 8 h of incubation. Similarly, ATRA increased DRA protein expression by ∼50%. Furthermore, DRA promoter activity was significantly increased in response to ATRA indicating transcriptional activation. ATRA effects on DRA expression appeared to be mediated via the RAR-β receptor subtype, as ATRA remarkably induced RAR-β mRNA levels, whereas RAR-β knockdown substantially attenuated the ability of ATRA to increase DRA expression. Results obtained from agonist (CH-55) and antagonist (LE-135) studies further confirmed that ATRA exerts its effects through RAR-β. Furthermore, ATRA treatment resulted in a significant increase in HNF-1β mRNA levels. The ability of ATRA to induce DRA expression was inhibited in the presence of HNF-1β siRNA indicative of its involvement in ATRA-induced effects on DRA expression. In conclusion, ATRA may act as an antidiarrheal agent by increasing DRA expression via the RAR-β/HNF-1β-dependent pathway.

Mechanisms of Intestinal Serotonin Transporter (SERT) Upregulation by TGF-β1 Induced Non-Smad Pathways

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25954931

TGF-β1 is an important multifunctional cytokine with numerous protective effects on intestinal mucosa. The influence of TGF-β1 on serotonin transporter (SERT) activity, the critical mechanism regulating the extracellular availability of serotonin (5-HT), is not known. Current studies were designed to examine acute effects of TGF-β1 on SERT. Model human intestinal Caco-2 cells grown as monolayer's or as cysts in 3D culture and ex vivo mouse model were utilized. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml, 60 min) stimulated SERT activity (~2 fold, P<0.005). This stimulation of SERT function was dependent upon activation of TGF-β1 receptor (TGFRI) as SB-431542, a specific TGF-βRI inhibitor blocked the SERT stimulation. SERT activation in response to TGF-β1 was attenuated by inhibition of PI3K and occurred via enhanced recruitment of SERT-GFP to apical surface in a PI3K dependent manner. The exocytosis inhibitor brefeldin A (2.5 μM) attenuated the TGF-β1-mediated increase in SERT function. TGF-β1 increased the association of SERT with the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) syntaxin 3 (STX3) and promoted exocytosis of SERT. Caco-2 cells grown as cysts in 3D culture recapitulated the effects of TGF-β1 showing increased luminal staining of SERT. Ussing chamber studies revealed increase in 3H-5-HT uptake in mouse ileum treated ex vivo with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml, 1h). These data demonstrate a novel mechanism rapidly regulating intestinal SERT via PI3K and STX3. Since decreased SERT is implicated in various gastro-intestinal disorders e.g IBD, IBS and diarrhea, understanding mechanisms stimulating SERT function by TGF-β1 offers a novel therapeutic strategy to treat GI disorders.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Counteracts Enteropathogenic E. Coli-induced Inhibition of Butyrate Uptake in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Oct, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26272259

Butyrate, a key short-chain fatty acid metabolite of colonic luminal bacterial action on dietary fiber, serves as a primary fuel for the colonocytes, ameliorates mucosal inflammation, and stimulates NaCl absorption. Absorption of butyrate into the colonocytes is essential for these intracellular effects. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) plays a major role in colonic luminal butyrate absorption. Previous studies (Tan J, McKenzie C, Potamitis M, Thorburn AN, Mackay CR, Macia L. Adv Immunol 121: 91-119, 2014.) showed decreased MCT1 expression and function in intestinal inflammation. We have previously shown (Borthakur A, Gill RK, Hodges K, Ramaswamy K, Hecht G, Dudeja PK. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 290: G30-G35, 2006.) impaired butyrate absorption in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells due to decreased MCT1 level at the apical cell surface following enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) infection. Current studies, therefore, examined the potential role of probiotic Lactobacilli in stimulating MCT1-mediated butyrate uptake and counteracting EPEC inhibition of MCT1 function. Of the five species of Lactobacilli, short-term (3 h) treatment with L. acidophilus (LA) significantly increased MCT1-mediated butyrate uptake in Caco-2 cells. Heat-killed LA was ineffective, whereas the conditioned culture supernatant of LA (LA-CS) was equally effective in stimulating MCT1 function, indicating that the effects are mediated by LA-secreted soluble factor(s). Furthermore, LA-CS increased apical membrane levels of MCT1 protein via decreasing its basal endocytosis, suggesting that LA-CS stimulation of butyrate uptake could be secondary to increased levels of MCT1 on the apical cell surface. LA-CS also attenuated EPEC inhibition of butyrate uptake and EPEC-mediated endocytosis of MCT1. Our studies highlight distinct role of specific LA-secreted molecules in modulating colonic butyrate absorption.

Mechanisms of DRA Recycling in Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Effect of Enteropathogenic E. Coli

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26447204

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes infantile diarrhea worldwide. EPEC decreases the activity and surface expression of the key intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)], contributing to the pathophysiology of early diarrhea. Little is known about the mechanisms governing membrane recycling of DRA. In the current study, Caco-2 cells were used to investigate DRA trafficking under basal conditions and in response to EPEC. Apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity was measured as DIDS-sensitive (125)I(-) uptake. Cell surface biotinylation was performed to assess DRA endocytosis and exocytosis. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chlorpromazine (60 μM) increased apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity. Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, also increased function and surface levels of DRA via decreased endocytosis. Perturbation of microtubules by nocodazole revealed that intact microtubules are essential for basal exocytic (but not endocytic) DRA recycling. Mice treated with colchicine showed a decrease in DRA surface levels as visualized by confocal microscopy. In response to EPEC infection, DRA surface expression was reduced partly via an increase in DRA endocytosis and a decrease in exocytosis. These effects were dependent on the EPEC virulence genes espG1 and espG2. Intriguingly, the EPEC-induced decrease in DRA function was unaltered in the presence of dynasore, suggesting a clathrin-independent internalization of surface DRA. In conclusion, these studies establish the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and microtubules in the basal surface expression of DRA and demonstrate that the EPEC-mediated decrease in DRA function and apical expression in Caco-2 cells involves decreased exocytosis.

Correction: Lactobacillus Acidophilus Alleviates Platelet-Activating Factor-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26540439

Mechanisms Underlying Dysregulation of Electrolyte Absorption in Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Associated Diarrhea

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26595422

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic inflammation of the intestine affects the normal fluid and electrolyte absorption leading to diarrhea, the hallmark symptom of IBD. The management of IBD-associated diarrhea still remains to be a challenge, and extensive studies over the last 2 decades have focused on investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying IBD-associated diarrhea. These studies have shown that the predominant mechanism of diarrhea in IBD involves impairment of electroneutral NaCl absorption, with very little role if any played by anion secretion. The electroneutral NaCl absorption involves coupled operation of Na/H exchanger 3 (NHE3 or SLC9A3) and Cl/HCO3 exchanger DRA (Down Regulated in Adenoma, or SLC26A3). Increasing evidence now supports the critical role of a marked decrease in NHE3 and DRA function and/or expression in IBD-associated diarrhea. This review provides a detailed analysis of the current knowledge related to alterations in NHE3 and DRA function and expression in IBD including the mechanisms underlying these observations and highlights the potential of these transporters as important and novel therapeutic targets.

A Novel Anti-inflammatory Role of GPR120 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26791484

GPR120 (free fatty acid receptor-4) is a G protein-coupled receptor for medium- and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, including ω-3 fatty acids. Recent studies have shown GPR120 to play cardinal roles in metabolic disorders via modulation of gut hormone secretion and insulin sensitivity and to exert anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and adipose tissues. However, information on anti-inflammatory role of GPR120 at the level of intestinal epithelium is very limited. Current studies demonstrated differential levels of GPR120 mRNA and protein along the length of the human, mouse, and rat intestine and delineated distinct anti-inflammatory responses following GPR120 activation in model human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, but not in model mouse intestinal epithelial endocrine cell line STC-1. In Caco-2 cells, GPR120 was internalized, bound to β-arrestin-2, and attenuated NF-κB activation in response to 30-min exposure to the agonists GW9508, TUG-891, or docosahexaenoic acid. These effects were abrogated in response to small interfering RNA silencing of β-arrestin-2. Treatment of STC-1 cells with these agonists did not induce receptor internalization and had no effects on NF-κB activation, although treatment with the agonists GW9508 or TUG-891 for 6 h augmented the synthesis and secretion of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 in this cell line. Our studies for the first time demonstrated a GPR120-mediated novel anti-inflammatory pathway in specific intestinal epithelial cell types that could be of therapeutic relevance to intestinal inflammatory disorders.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Stimulates Intestinal P-glycoprotein Expression Via a C-Fos/c-Jun-dependent Mechanism in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26867563

Our previous studies showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) culture supernatant (CS) increased P-glycoprotein [Pgp/multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)] function, expression, and promoter activity in Caco-2 cells. The current studies were designed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating the stimulatory effects of LA CS on Pgp promoter activity. Deletion analysis indicated that the LA CS response element(s) is located in the -172/+428-bp region, and sequence analysis of this region revealed three potential binding sites for c-Fos or c-Jun: proximal activating protein (AP) 1a (-119/-98 bp), distal AP1b (-99/-78 bp), and AP1c (+175/+196 bp). LA CS (24 h) showed an approximately twofold increase in the protein expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in Caco-2 cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that LA CS markedly increased the binding of Caco-2 nuclear proteins to AP1a and AP1b, but not AP1c. The DNA-protein complex was completely eliminated by c-Fos antibody, while c-Jun antibody partially eliminated the complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis also showed that LA CS enhanced the association of c-Fos and c-Jun (by ∼4- and 1.5-fold, respectively) with endogenous Pgp promoter in Caco-2 cells (p-172/+1). Interestingly, overexpression of c-Fos or c-Jun activated Pgp promoter by nearly twofold each. This increase was further enhanced (∼14-fold) when c-Fos and c-Jun were simultaneously overexpressed, suggesting that the presence of one of these transcription factors potentiates the effect of the other. These studies, for the first time, provide evidence for the involvement of c-Fos/c-Jun in stimulation of Pgp gene expression by LA CS in the human intestine.

Transcriptional Modulation of SLC26A3 (DRA) by Sphingosine-1-phosphate

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27079615

SLC26A3 or Downregulated in adenoma (DRA) is the major Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption in the mammalian intestine. Alterations in DRA function and expression have been implicated in diarrheal diseases associated with inflammation or infection. Therefore, agents that upregulate DRA activity may serve as potential antidiarrheals. In this regard, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a member of the bioactive sphingolipid family, has been shown to modulate various cellular processes including improvement of intestinal barrier function. However, the role of S1P in modulating intestinal chloride absorption by regulating DRA is not known. Therefore, the present studies were designed to examine the direct effects of S1P on apical Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity and DRA expression. S1P significantly increased Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity and also significantly increased DRA mRNA and protein expression. Increased DRA mRNA by S1P was accompanied by enhanced DRA promoter activity, indicating involvement of transcriptional mechanisms. The specific S1P receptor subtype-2 (S1PR2) antagonist JTE-013 blocked the stimulatory effects of S1P on DRA promoter activity, indicating the involvement of S1PR2 S1P-mediated increase in DRA promoter activity involved PI3K/Akt pathway. Progressive deletions of the DRA promoter indicated that the putative S1P-responsive elements are present in the -790/-398 region of the DRA promoter. Furthermore, results obtained from electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that S1P stimulated DRA promoter activity via increased binding of Ying-Yang1 (YY1) in the S1P-responsive region. In conclusion, transcriptional modulation of DRA expression and function in response to S1P through a PI3/Akt pathway represents a novel role of S1P as a potential proabsorptive agent.

Keratin 8 Knockdown Leads to Loss of the Chloride Transporter DRA in the Colon

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27125276

Keratins (K) are intermediate filament proteins important in protection from stress. The roles of keratins in the intestine are not clear, but K8 knockout (K8(-/-)) mice develop a Th2-type colonic inflammation, epithelial hyperproliferation, and mild diarrhea caused by a keratin level-dependent decrease in short-circuit current and net sodium and chloride absorption in the distal colon. The lack of K8 leads to mistargeting or altered levels of membrane proteins in colonocytes; however, the main transporter responsible for the keratin-related ion transport defect is unknown. We here analyzed protein and mRNA levels of candidate ion transporters CFTR, PAT-1, NHE-3, and DRA in ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon. Although no differences were observed for CFTR, PAT-1, or NHE-3, DRA mRNA levels were decreased by three- to fourfold and DRA protein was almost entirely lost in K8(-/-) cecum and proximal and distal colon compared with K8(+/+), whereas the levels in ileum were normal. In K8(+/-) mice, DRA mRNA levels were unaltered, while decreased DRA protein levels were detected in the proximal colon. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the loss of DRA in K8(-/-) distal colon, while K8(+/-) displayed a similar but more patchy apical DRA distribution compared with K8(+/+) DRA was similarly decreased when K8 was knocked down in Caco-2 cells, confirming that K8 levels modulate DRA levels in an inflammation-independent manner. Taken together, the loss of DRA in the K8(-/-) mouse colon and cecum explains the dramatic chloride transport defect and diarrheal phenotype after K8 inactivation and identifies K8 as a novel regulator of DRA.

Identification of Intestinal Ion Transport Defects in Microvillus Inclusion Disease

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jul, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27229121

Loss of function mutations in the actin motor myosin Vb (Myo5b) lead to microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) and death in newborns and children. MVID results in secretory diarrhea, brush border (BB) defects, villus atrophy, and microvillus inclusions (MVIs) in enterocytes. How loss of Myo5b results in increased stool loss of chloride (Cl(-)) and sodium (Na(+)) is unknown. The present study used Myo5b loss-of-function human MVID intestine, polarized intestinal cell models of secretory crypt (T84) and villus resembling (CaCo2BBe, C2BBe) enterocytes lacking Myo5b in conjunction with immunofluorescence confocal stimulated emission depletion (gSTED) imaging, immunohistochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, shRNA silencing, immunoblots, and electrophysiological approaches to examine the distribution, expression, and function of the major BB ion transporters NHE3 (Na(+)), CFTR (Cl(-)), and SLC26A3 (DRA) (Cl(-)/HCO3 (-)) that control intestinal fluid transport. We hypothesized that enterocyte maturation defects lead villus atrophy with immature secretory cryptlike enterocytes in the MVID epithelium. We investigated the role of Myo5b in enterocyte maturation. NHE3 and DRA localization and function were markedly reduced on the BB membrane of human MVID enterocytes and Myo5bKD C2BBe cells, while CFTR localization was preserved. Forskolin-stimulated CFTR ion transport in Myo5bKD T84 cells resembled that of control. Loss of Myo5b led to YAP1 nuclear retention, retarded enterocyte maturation, and a cryptlike phenotype. We conclude that preservation of functional CFTR in immature enterocytes, reduced functional expression of NHE3, and DRA contribute to Cl(-) and Na(+) stool loss in MVID diarrhea.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Counteracts Inhibition of NHE3 and DRA Expression and Alleviates Diarrheal Phenotype in Mice Infected with Citrobacter Rodentium

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27634011

Impaired absorption of electrolytes is a hallmark of diarrhea associated with inflammation or enteric infections. Intestinal epithelial luminal membrane NHE3 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3) and DRA (Down-Regulated in Adenoma; Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger) play key roles in mediating electroneutral NaCl absorption. We have previously shown decreased NHE3 and DRA function in response to short-term infection with enteropathogenic E coli (EPEC), a diarrheal pathogen. Recent studies have also shown substantial downregulation of DRA expression in a diarrheal model of infection with Citrobacter rodentium, the mouse counterpart of EPEC. Since our previous studies showed that the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) increased DRA and NHE3 function and expression and conferred protective effects in experimental colitis, we sought to evaluate the efficacy of LA in counteracting NHE3 and DRA inhibition and ameliorating diarrhea in a model of C rodentium infection. FVB/N mice challenged with C rodentium [1 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU)] with or without administration of live LA (3 × 10(9) CFU) were assessed for NHE3 and DRA mRNA and protein expression, mRNA levels of carbonic anhydrase, diarrheal phenotype (assessed by colonic weight-to-length ratio), myeloperoxidase activity, and proinflammatory cytokines. LA counteracted C rodentium-induced inhibition of colonic DRA, NHE3, and carbonic anhydrase I and IV expression and attenuated diarrheal phenotype and MPO activity. Furthermore, LA completely blocked C rodentium induction of IL-1β, IFN-γ, and CXCL1 mRNA and C rodentium-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. In conclusion, our data provide mechanistic insights into antidiarrheal effects of LA in a model of infectious diarrhea and colitis.

GLP-1 Nanomedicine Alleviates Gut Inflammation

Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine. Feb, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 27553076

The gut hormone, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, its clinical use is limited by its short half-life. Previously, we have shown that GLP-1 as a nanomedicine (GLP-1 in sterically stabilized phospholipid micelles, GLP-1-SSM) has increased in vivo stability. The current study was aimed at testing the efficacy of this GLP-1 nanomedicine in alleviating colonic inflammation and associated diarrhea in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced mouse colitis model. Our results show that GLP-1-SSM treatment markedly alleviated the colitis phenotype by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, increasing goblet cells and preserving intestinal epithelial architecture in colitis model. Further, GLP-1-SSM alleviated diarrhea (as assessed by luminal fluid) by increasing protein expression of intestinal chloride transporter DRA (down regulated in adenoma). Our results indicate that GLP-1 nanomedicine may act as a novel therapeutic tool in alleviating gut inflammation and associated diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Role of SHP2 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase in SERT Inhibition by Enteropathogenic E. Coli (EPEC)

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Feb, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28209599

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), one of the diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes, is among the most important food-borne pathogens infecting children worldwide. Inhibition of serotonin transporter (SERT), that regulates extracellular availability of serotonin (5-HT), has been previously implicated in EPEC-associated diarrhea. EPEC was shown to inhibit SERT via activation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPase), albeit the specific PTPase involved is not known. Current studies aimed to identify EPEC activated PTPase and its role in SERT inhibition. Infection of Caco-2 monolayers with EPEC strain E2348/69 for 30 min increased the activity of SHP2 (Src-Homology-2 Domain containing PTPase) but not SHP1 or PTP1B. Similarly, western blot studies showed increased tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP2 indicative of its activation. Concomitantly, EPEC infection decreased SERT tyrosine phosphorylation levels. This was associated with increased interaction of SHP2 with SERT as evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation studies. To examine whether SHP2 directly influences SERT phosphorylation status or function, SHP2 cDNA plasmid constructs (wild type, constitutively active or dominant negative) were overexpressed in Caco-2 cells by Amaxa electroporation. In the cells overexpressing constitutively active SHP2, SERT polypeptide showed complete loss of tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, there was a decrease in SERT function as measured by Na(+)Cl(-)-sensitive (3)[H] 5-HT uptake and an increase in association of SERT with SHP2 in Caco-2 cells expressing constitutively active SHP2 compared to dominant negative SHP2. Our data demonstrate that intestinal SERT is a target of SHP2 and reveal a novel mechanism by which a common food-borne pathogen utilizes cellular SHP2 to inhibit SERT.

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