Articles by Regina Dahlhaus in JoVE
Other articles by Regina Dahlhaus on PubMed
EHD Proteins Associate with Syndapin I and II and Such Interactions Play a Crucial Role in Endosomal Recycling Molecular Biology of the Cell. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15930129 EHD proteins were shown to function in the exit of receptors and other membrane proteins from the endosomal recycling compartment. Here, we identify syndapins, accessory proteins in vesicle formation at the plasma membrane, as differential binding partners for EHD proteins. These complexes are formed by direct eps15-homology (EH) domain/asparagine proline phenylalanine (NPF) motif interactions. Heterologous and endogenous coimmunoprecipitations as well as reconstitutions of syndapin/EHD protein complexes at intracellular membranes of living cells demonstrate the in vivo relevance of the interaction. The combination of mutational analysis and coimmunoprecipitations performed under different nucleotide conditions strongly suggest that nucleotide binding by EHD proteins modulates the association with syndapins. Colocalization studies and subcellular fractionation experiments support a role for syndapin/EHD protein complexes in membrane trafficking. Specific interferences with syndapin-EHD protein interactions by either overexpression of the isolated EHD-binding interface of syndapin II or of the EHD1 EH domain inhibited the recycling of transferrin to the plasma membrane, suggesting that EH domain/NPF interactions are critical for EHD protein function in recycling. Consistently, both inhibitions were rescued by co-overexpression of the attacked protein component. Our data thus reveal that, in addition to a crucial role in endocytic internalization, syndapin protein complexes play an important role in endocytic receptor recycling.
Altered Neuroligin Expression is Involved in Social Deficits in a Mouse Model of the Fragile X Syndrome Behavioural Brain Research. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19932134 The fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. Caused by a transcriptional silencing of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a mRNA binding protein itself, misregulated translation is thought to be the leading cause of the fragile X syndrome. Interestingly, recent results indicated several neuroligin interacting proteins to be affected by this misregulation, including neurexin1 and PSD95, which have also been implicated in autism spectrum disorders. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays and RT-PCR, FMRP is shown to interact with neuroligin1- and 2-mRNA, while no interaction with neuroligin3-mRNA is observed. In line with FMRP's role in translation regulation, Western blot as well as immunohistochemistry analysis reveal changes in protein expression levels suggesting impaired synaptic function. As increasing evidence indicates neuroligin expression to be critical for synapse maturation and function, consequences of impaired neuroligin1 expression in FXS are assessed by overexpressing HA-neuroligin1 in FMR1-/- mice, a model for FXS. Behavioural assessments demonstrate that enhanced neuroligin1 expression improves social behaviour in FMR1-/- mice, whereas no positive effect on learning and memory is seen. These results provide for the first time evidence for an involvement of a neuroligin-neurexin protein network in core symptoms of FXS.
Identification and Characterisation of Simiate, a Novel Protein Linked to the Fragile X Syndrome PloS One. 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24349419 A strict regulation of protein expression during developmental stages and in response to environmental signals is essential to every cell and organism. Recent research has shown that the mammalian brain is particularly sensitive to alterations in expression patterns of specific proteins and cognitive deficits as well as autistic behaviours have been linked to dysregulated protein expression. An intellectual disability characterised by changes in the expression of a variety of proteins is the fragile X syndrome. Due to the loss of a single mRNA binding protein, the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein FMRP, vast misregulation of the mRNA metabolism is taking place in the disease. Here, we present the identification and characterisation of a novel protein named Simiate, whose mRNA contains several FMRP recognition motifs and associates with FMRP upon co-precipitation. Sequence analysis revealed that the protein evolved app. 1.7 billion years ago when eukaryotes developed. Applying antibodies generated against Simiate, the protein is detected in a variety of tissues, including the mammalian brain. On the subcellular level, Simiate localises to somata and nuclear speckles. We show that Simiate and nuclear speckles experience specific alterations in FMR1(-/-) mice. An antibody-based block of endogenous Simiate revealed that the protein is essential for cell survival. These findings suggest not only an important role for Simiate in gene transcription and/or RNA splicing, but also provide evidence for a function of nuclear speckles in the fragile X syndrome. Indeed, transcription and splicing are two fundamental mechanisms to control protein expression, that underlie not only synaptic plasticity and memory formation, but are also affected in several diseases associated with mental disabilities.
Special Characteristics of the Transcription and Splicing Machinery in Photoreceptor Cells of the Mammalian Retina Cell and Tissue Research. Nov, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26013685 Chromatin organization and the management of transcription and splicing are fundamental to the correct functioning of every cell but, in particular, for highly active cells such as photoreceptors, the sensory neurons of the retina. Rod photoreceptor cells of nocturnal animals have recently been shown to have an inverted chromatin architecture compared with rod photoreceptor cells of diurnal animals. The heterochromatin is concentrated in the center of the nucleus, whereas the genetically active euchromatin is positioned close to the nuclear membrane. This unique chromatin architecture suggests that the transcription and splicing machinery is also subject to specific adaptations in these cells. Recently, we described the protein Simiate, which is enriched in nuclear speckles and seems to be involved in transcription and splicing processes. Here, we examine the distribution of Simiate and nuclear speckles in neurons of mouse retinae. In retinal neurons of the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layer, Simiate is concentrated in a clustered pattern in the nuclear interior, whereas in rod and cone photoreceptor cells, Simiate is present at the nuclear periphery. Further staining with markers for the transcription and splicing machinery has confirmed the localization of nuclear speckle components at the periphery. Comparing the distribution of nuclear speckles in retinae of the nocturnal mouse with the diurnal degu, we found no differences in the arrangement of the transcription and splicing machinery in their photoreceptor cells, thus suggesting that the organization of these machineries is not related to the animal's lifestyle but rather represents a general characteristic of photoreceptor organization and function.