In JoVE (1)
Articles by Robert D. Moser in JoVE
Characterization Of Multi-layered Fish Scales (Atractosteus spatula) Using Nanoindentation, X-ray CT, FTIR, and SEM Paul G. Allison1, Rogie I. Rodriguez2, Robert D. Moser1, Brett A. Williams1, Aimee R. Poda3, Jennifer M. Seiter3, Brandon J. Lafferty3, Alan J. Kennedy3, Mei Q. Chandler1 1Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, 3Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center This paper presents the methods used for probing spatially correlated chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of the multilayered scale of Atractosteus spatula (A. spatula) using nanoindentation, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT). The experimental results have been used to investigate the design principles of protective biological materials.
Other articles by Robert D. Moser on PubMed
The Effect of LVAD Aortic Outflow-graft Placement on Hemodynamics and Flow: Implantation Technique and Computer Flow Modeling Texas Heart Institute Journal / from the Texas Heart Institute of St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16392208 Axial-flow ventricular assist devices (VADs) can be implanted either through a left thoracotomy with outflow-graft anastomosis to the descending thoracic aorta or through a midline sternotomy with anastomosis to the ascending aorta. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. Because these VADs produce nonpulsatile flow, their hemodynamic characteristics differ from those of pulsatile devices. These differences may have important clinical consequences, particularly in relation to the outflow-graft configuration. We describe a computer-generated flow model that we created to illustrate the flow dynamics and possible clinical consequences of each method. The simulations indicate that the location of the anastomosis has important qualitative effects on flow in the ascending aorta and aortic arch. At high VAD outputs (> or =75%), native cardiac output cannot supply the carotid and subclavian arteries. With a descending aortic anastomosis, net backward flow occurs in the descending aorta to supply these branches. Consequently, the aortic arch has a region with almost no net flow, where fluid particles stagnate over many cardiac cycles, possibly causing thrombogenesis. With an ascending aortic anastomosis, the arch has no stagnant region, although flow turbulence still occurs. When the aortic valve remains closed, so that the total output occurs through the VAD, the aortic root has a region of nearly stagnant flow. With an ascending aortic anastomosis, a small degree of recirculatory flow may prevent complete stagnation at the aortic root. With the descending aortic anastomosis, however, no recirculation occurs. These results help delineate the complex flow dynamics and the advantages and drawbacks of each technique.
What Are We Learning from Simulating Wall Turbulence? Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17244593 The study of turbulence near walls has experienced a renaissance in the last decade, largely owing to the availability of high-quality numerical simulations. The viscous and buffer layers over smooth walls are essentially independent of the outer flow, and there is a family of numerically exact nonlinear structures that account for about half of the energy production and dissipation. The rest can be modelled by their unsteady bursting. Many characteristics of the wall layer, such as the dimensions of the dominant structures, are well predicted by those models, which were essentially completed in the 1990s after the increase in computer power made the kinematic simulations of the late 1980s cheap enough to undertake dynamic experiments.Today, we are at the early stages of simulating the logarithmic (or overlap) layer, and a number of details regarding its global properties are becoming clear. For instance, a finite Reynolds number correction to the logarithmic law has been validated in turbulent channels. This has allowed upper and lower limits of the overlap region to be clarified, with both upper and lower bounds occurring at much larger distances from the wall than commonly assumed. A kinematic picture of the various cascades present in this part of the flow is also beginning to emerge. Dynamical understanding can be expected in the next decade.
Fate and Toxicity of CuO Nanospheres and Nanorods Used in Al/CuO Nanothermites Before and After Combustion Environmental Science & Technology. Oct, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23971725 Although nanotechnology advancements should be fostered, the environmental health and safety (EHS) of nanoparticles used in technologies must be quantified simultaneously. However, most EHS studies assess the potential implications of the free nanoparticles which may not be directly applicable to the EHS of particles incorporated into in-use technologies. This investigation assessed the aquatic toxicological implications of copper oxide (CuO) nanospheres relative to CuO nanorods used in nanoenergetic applications to improve combustion. Particles were tested in both the as-received form and following combustion of a CuO/aluminum nanothermite. Results indicated nanospheres were more stable in water and slowly released ions, while higher surface area nanorods initially released more ions and were more toxic but generally less stable. After combustion, particles sintered into larger, micrometer-scale aggregates, which may lower toxicity potential to pelagic organisms due to deposition from water to sediment and reduced bioavailability after complexation with sediment organic matter. Whereas the larger nanothermite residues settled rapidly, implying lower persistence in water, their potential to release dissolved Cu was higher which led to greater toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia relative to parent CuO material (nanosphere or rod). This study illustrates the importance of considering the fate and toxicology of nanoparticles in context with their relevant in-use applications.