In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (8)

Articles by Robert Hauschild in JoVE

Other articles by Robert Hauschild on PubMed

Template-assisted Large-scale Ordered Arrays of ZnO Pillars for Optical and Piezoelectric Applications

Small (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany). Apr, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 17193086

Spatially separated ZnO pillars, typically 300 nm in diameter and 2 microm in height, are fabricated via a template-directed approach that leads to long-range hexagonal order. The templates of Au nanodisk arrays are obtained by using metal membranes as a lithography mask. The growth of ZnO pillars is performed in a double-tube system through vapor diffusion-deposition. The growth mechanism of the pillars is studied in detail and is proposed to be a combination of vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-solid models. The piezoelectric and optical properties of single pillars are characterized using piezoresponse force microscopy and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. The pillars show strong excitonic emissions up to room temperature, which indicate a relatively low defect density and good crystalline quality. The obtained piezoelectric coefficient d(33) is (7.5+/-0.6) pm V(-1), which is to our knowledge the first reported value for a single nanopillar.

Syntheses and Energy Transfer in Multiporphyrinic Arrays Self-assembled with Hydrogen-bonding Recognition Groups and Comparison with Covalent Steroidal Models

Chemistry (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany). 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17645286

A number of new porphyrins equipped with complementary triple hydrogen-bonding groups were synthesized in good yields. Self-assembly was investigated by NMR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These artificial antenna systems were further characterized by stationary and time-resolved fluorescence techniques to investigate several yet unsolved questions on the mechanism of excitation energy transfer (EET) in supramolecular systems. For example, the photophysics of a simple D--U[triple chemical bond]P--A dyad was studied, in which donor D and acceptor A are ZnII- metalated and free-base porphyrins, respectively, and U (uracyl) and P (2,6-diacetamidopyridyl) are complementary hydrogen-bonding groups linked by flexible spacers. In this dyad, the EET occurs with about 20 % efficiency with a lifetime of 14 ps. Reversal of the nonsymmetric triple hydrogen-bonding groups to give a A--U[triple chemical bond]P--D construct results in an EET efficiency of about 25 % and a lifetime of 19 ps. Thus, there is a slight directionality of EET mediated by these asymmetric triple hydrogen-bonding units tethered to flexible spacers. In polymeric systems of the type P-D-P[triple chemical bond]U-A-U[triple chemical bond]P-D-P, or U-D-U[triple chemical bond]P-A-P[triple chemical bond]U-D-U, the EET efficiency doubles as each donor is flanked by two acceptors. Because doubling the probability of photon capture doubles the EET efficiency, there is no energy amplification, which is consistent with the "antenna effect". For these polymeric systems, AFM images and DLS data indicate large rodlike assemblies of a few hundred nanometers, whereas the components form much smaller aggregates under the same conditions. To understand the importance of the flexible hydrogen-bonding zipper, three different covalently bridged D-B-A molecules were synthesized in which the bridge B is a rigid steroidal system and the same ester chemistry was used to link the porphyrins to each end of the steroid. The geometry inferred from molecular modeling of D-B-A indicates geometric similarities between B and some conformations of the --P[triple chemical bond]U-- supramolecular bridge. Although the EET efficiency is a factor of two greater for the steroidal systems relative to the supramolecular dyads, the rate is 50-80 times slower, but still slightly faster than that predicted by Förster-type mechanisms. Circular dichrosim (CD) spectra provide a conformational sampling of the porphyrin groups appended on the steroidal skeleton, thus allowing an estimation of the orientation factor kappa for the transition dipole moments, which significantly affects the EET rate. We conclude that the flexible hydrogen-bonded linked systems are adaptive and have variable geometries with foldamers in which the D and A groups can approach well under 1 nm. In these folded conformations, a rapid EET process occurs, probably also involving a Dexter-type exchange mechanism, thus explaining the fast EET relative to the rigid steroidal compounds. This study predicts that it is indeed possible to build large supramolecular antennas and the component design and supramolecular dynamics are essential features that dictate EET rates and efficiencies.

Programmed Metalloporphyrins for Self-assembly Within Light-harvesting Stacks: (5,15-dicyano-10,20-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)porphyrinato)zinc(II) and Its Push-pull 15-N,N-dialkylamino-5-cyano Congeners Obtained by a Facile Direct Amination

The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B. May, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18402489

The title dicyano compound was synthesized via cyanation and it self-assembles in nonpolar solvents giving red-shifted and broad absorption maxima just as the bacteriochlorophylls which are encountered in the light-harvesting organelles of early photosynthetic bacteria. In the crystal, stacks are formed through a hierarchic combination of pi-stacking and a CN-Zn electrostatic interaction. Push-pull 15-N,N-dialkylamino-5-cyano congeners could be obtained in high yields using a solvent- and catalyst-free direct amination of meso-bromoporphyrins. Importantly, the fluorescence of the self-assembled species due to the very orderly manner in which the chromophores are arranged is not entirely quenched and has a surprisingly long lifetime of over 1 ns. This lends hope of using the trapped energy in biomimetic hybrid solar cells.

Forces Driving Epithelial Spreading in Zebrafish Gastrulation

Science (New York, N.Y.). Oct, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23066079

Contractile actomyosin rings drive various fundamental morphogenetic processes ranging from cytokinesis to wound healing. Actomyosin rings are generally thought to function by circumferential contraction. Here, we show that the spreading of the enveloping cell layer (EVL) over the yolk cell during zebrafish gastrulation is driven by a contractile actomyosin ring. In contrast to previous suggestions, we find that this ring functions not only by circumferential contraction but also by a flow-friction mechanism. This generates a pulling force through resistance against retrograde actomyosin flow. EVL spreading proceeds normally in situations where circumferential contraction is unproductive, indicating that the flow-friction mechanism is sufficient. Thus, actomyosin rings can function in epithelial morphogenesis through a combination of cable-constriction and flow-friction mechanisms.

Interstitial Dendritic Cell Guidance by Haptotactic Chemokine Gradients

Science (New York, N.Y.). Jan, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23329049

Directional guidance of cells via gradients of chemokines is considered crucial for embryonic development, cancer dissemination, and immune responses. Nevertheless, the concept still lacks direct experimental confirmation in vivo. Here, we identify endogenous gradients of the chemokine CCL21 within mouse skin and show that they guide dendritic cells toward lymphatic vessels. Quantitative imaging reveals depots of CCL21 within lymphatic endothelial cells and steeply decaying gradients within the perilymphatic interstitium. These gradients match the migratory patterns of the dendritic cells, which directionally approach vessels from a distance of up to 90-micrometers. Interstitial CCL21 is immobilized to heparan sulfates, and its experimental delocalization or swamping the endogenous gradients abolishes directed migration. These findings functionally establish the concept of haptotaxis, directed migration along immobilized gradients, in tissues.

Inhibition of Cell Expansion by Rapid ABP1-mediated Auxin Effect on Microtubules

Nature. Dec, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25409144

The prominent and evolutionarily ancient role of the plant hormone auxin is the regulation of cell expansion. Cell expansion requires ordered arrangement of the cytoskeleton but molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation by signalling molecules including auxin are unknown. Here we show in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana that in elongating cells exogenous application of auxin or redistribution of endogenous auxin induces very rapid microtubule re-orientation from transverse to longitudinal, coherent with the inhibition of cell expansion. This fast auxin effect requires auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1) and involves a contribution of downstream signalling components such as ROP6 GTPase, ROP-interactive protein RIC1 and the microtubule-severing protein katanin. These components are required for rapid auxin- and ABP1-mediated re-orientation of microtubules to regulate cell elongation in roots and dark-grown hypocotyls as well as asymmetric growth during gravitropic responses.

Diversified Actin Protrusions Promote Environmental Exploration but Are Dispensable for Locomotion Of leukocytes

Nature Cell Biology. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27775702

Most migrating cells extrude their front by the force of actin polymerization. Polymerization requires an initial nucleation step, which is mediated by factors establishing either parallel filaments in the case of filopodia or branched filaments that form the branched lamellipodial network. Branches are considered essential for regular cell motility and are initiated by the Arp2/3 complex, which in turn is activated by nucleation-promoting factors of the WASP and WAVE families. Here we employed rapid amoeboid crawling leukocytes and found that deletion of the WAVE complex eliminated actin branching and thus lamellipodia formation. The cells were left with parallel filaments at the leading edge, which translated, depending on the differentiation status of the cell, into a unipolar pointed cell shape or cells with multiple filopodia. Remarkably, unipolar cells migrated with increased speed and enormous directional persistence, while they were unable to turn towards chemotactic gradients. Cells with multiple filopodia retained chemotactic activity but their migration was progressively impaired with increasing geometrical complexity of the extracellular environment. These findings establish that diversified leading edge protrusions serve as explorative structures while they slow down actual locomotion.

A Microfluidic Device for Measuring Cell Migration Towards Substrate-bound and Soluble Chemokine Gradients

Scientific Reports. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27819270

Cellular locomotion is a central hallmark of eukaryotic life. It is governed by cell-extrinsic molecular factors, which can either emerge in the soluble phase or as immobilized, often adhesive ligands. To encode for direction, every cue must be present as a spatial or temporal gradient. Here, we developed a microfluidic chamber that allows measurement of cell migration in combined response to surface immobilized and soluble molecular gradients. As a proof of principle we study the response of dendritic cells to their major guidance cues, chemokines. The majority of data on chemokine gradient sensing is based on in vitro studies employing soluble gradients. Despite evidence suggesting that in vivo chemokines are often immobilized to sugar residues, limited information is available how cells respond to immobilized chemokines. We tracked migration of dendritic cells towards immobilized gradients of the chemokine CCL21 and varying superimposed soluble gradients of CCL19. Differential migratory patterns illustrate the potential of our setup to quantitatively study the competitive response to both types of gradients. Beyond chemokines our approach is broadly applicable to alternative systems of chemo- and haptotaxis such as cells migrating along gradients of adhesion receptor ligands vs. any soluble cue.

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