Articles by Ronald Winston in JoVE
The α-test: Rapid Cell-free CD4 Enumeration Using Whole Saliva Cynthia L. Bristow1, Mariya A. Babayeva1, Rozbeh Modarresi1, Carole P. McArthur2, Santosh Kumar3, Charles Awasom4, Leo Ayuk4, Annette Njinda5, Paul Achu5, Ronald Winston6 1Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 2Department of Oral Biology, University of Missouri-Kansas City-School of Dentistry, 3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Missouri Kansas City- School of Pharmacy, 4Regional Hospital, Bamenda, NWP, Cameroon, 5Mezam Polyclinic HIV/AIDS Treatment Center, Cameroon, 6Institute for Human Genetics and Biochemistry A CD4 enumeration method, the α-test, is described which uses whole saliva to provide rapid and accurate CD4 counts. The α-test costs pennies and eliminates the need for technical training, costly reagents such as monoclonal antibodies, instrumentation, refrigeration, transport of samples, as well as collection and handling of blood.
Other articles by Ronald Winston on PubMed
NF-kappaB Signaling, Elastase Localization, and Phagocytosis Differ in HIV-1 Permissive and Nonpermissive U937 Clones Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18097051 To identify positive or negative factors for HIV-1 infectivity, clones from the U937 promonocytic cell line that express similar levels of CD4 and CXCR4, but differ in HIV-1 susceptibility, were compared. In contrast to HIV-1 permissive clone 10 (plus), nonpermissive clone 17 (minus) was adherent to coverslips coated with chemokines, was phagocytic, killed bacteria, and expressed human leukocyte elastase (HLE) in a granule-like compartment (HLEG) that was never detected at the cell surface (HLECS). In contrast to the minus clone, the plus clone expressed HLE on the cell surface and was adherent to coverslips coated with the HLECS ligands alpha1proteinase inhibitor (alpha1PI, alpha1antitrypsin) and the HIV-1 fusion peptide. The phosphorylation status of several important signaling proteins was studied at the single cell level. Tumor suppressor p53, NF-kappaB p65, and Akt were constitutively phosphorylated in the plus clone, but not in the minus clone. Surprisingly, both alpha1PI and LPS induced phosphorylation of NF-kappaB p65 Ser-536 in both clones, but induced dephosphorylation of Ser-529 in the plus clone only. HIV-1 permissivity was conferred to the minus clone in a manner that required stimulation by both alpha1PI and LPS and was coincident to NF-kappaB p65 phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events as well as translocation of HLE to the cell surface. Even when stimulated, the minus clone exhibited greater reverse transcriptase activity, but less p24, than the plus clone. Results presented suggest that HIV-1 uptake and production efficiency are influenced by signaling profiles, receptor distribution, and the phagocytic capacity specific to the stage of differentiation of the CD4+ target cell.