In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (8)
- Neuroscience Research
- Brain Research
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- Journal of Neuroscience Methods
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Articles by Ryosuke Enoki in JoVE
Poziome Przygotowanie Kromka Retina Ryosuke Enoki1, Tatjana C. Jakobs2, Amane Koizumi2 1Dpt of Physiology and Biophysics, Dalhousie University, 2Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School Tradycyjnie w pionie kawałek i cały montażu przygotowanie siatkówce były używane w badaniach funkcji siatkówki obwodów. Poniżej opiszemy powieści krojenia metody zachowania dendrytycznych morfologii neuronów siatkówki nienaruszone.
Other articles by Ryosuke Enoki on PubMed
NMDA Receptor-mediated Depolarizing After-potentials in the Basal Dendrites of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons Neuroscience Research. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15154678 It was shown recently that the basal dendrites of cortical pyramidal neurons generate NMDA-spikes. In the present study, we made whole-cell recordings from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and examined whether NMDA receptor activation was involved in synaptic responses. At low input stimulus intensity, EPSPs with a fast decay time were induced. As the intensity of stimulation was increased in the presence of GABA receptor antagonists, a depolarizing after-potential (DAP) was generated in addition to a fast decaying potential. A DAP was never observed when the input was applied to the apical dendrites. The DAP was suppressed by hyperpolarization or by NMDA receptor antagonists, but not by Na+, K+, or Ca2+ channel blockers. One possible mechanism is that the morphology of the basal dendrites favors DAP generation. A compartmental model simulation showed that synaptic inputs to thinner shorter dendrites generated a potential that resembled a DAP. Our study shows that a synaptic input to the basal dendrites of a hippocampal pyramidal neuron can generate a NMDA receptor-mediated potential in the presence of GABA receptor blockade.
Multiple Spatiotemporal Patterns of Dendritic Ca2+ Signals in Goldfish Retinal Amacrine Cells Brain Research. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15364020 Although it has been reported that dendritic neurotransmitter releases from amacrine cells are regulated by the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), their spatiotemporal patterns are not well explained. Fast Ca(2+) imagings of amacrine cells in the horizontal slice preparation of goldfish retinas under whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were undertaken to better investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of dendritic [Ca(2+)](i). We found that amacrine cell dendrites showed inhomogeneous [Ca(2+)](i) increases in both Na(+) spiking cells and cells without Na(+) spikes. The spatiotemporal properties of inhomogeneous [Ca(2+)](i) increases were classified into three patterns: local, regional and global. Local [Ca(2+)](i) increases were observed in very discrete regions and appeared as discontinuous patches, presumably evoked by local excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Regional [Ca(2+)](i) increases were observed in either a single or a small number of dendrites, presumably reflecting the result of dendritic action potentials. Global [Ca(2+)](i) increases were observed in the entire dendrites of a cell and were mediated by Na(+) action potentials or multiple Na(+) action potentials riding on slow depolarization. Ca(2+)-mediated potentials also evoked global [Ca(2+)](i) increase in cells without Na(+) spikes. These spatiotemporal dynamics of dendritic Ca(2+) signals may reflect multiple modes of synaptic integration on the dendrites of amacrine cells.
Spatiotemporal Recapitulation of Central Nervous System Development by Murine Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Neural Stem/progenitor Cells Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18757299 Neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) can generate a wide variety of neural cells. However, their fates are generally restricted, depending on the time and location of NS/PC origin. Here we demonstrate that we can recapitulate the spatiotemporal regulation of central nervous system (CNS) development in vitro by using a neurosphere-based culture system of embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived NS/PCs. This ES cell-derived neurosphere system enables the efficient derivation of highly neurogenic fibroblast growth factor-responsive NS/PCs with early temporal identities and high cell-fate plasticity. Over repeated passages, these NS/PCs exhibit temporal progression, becoming epidermal growth factor-responsive gliogenic NS/PCs with late temporal identities; this change is accompanied by an alteration in the epigenetic status of the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter, similar to that observed in the developing brain. Moreover, the rostrocaudal and dorsoventral spatial identities of the NS/PCs can be successfully regulated by sequential administration of several morphogens. These NS/PCs can differentiate into early-born projection neurons, including cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic, and motor neurons, that exhibit action potentials in vitro. Finally, these NS/PCs differentiate into neurons that form synaptic contacts with host neurons after their transplantation into wild-type and disease model animals. Thus, this culture system can be used to obtain specific neurons from ES cells, is a simple and powerful tool for investigating the underlying mechanisms of CNS development, and is applicable to regenerative treatment for neurological disorders.
Expression of Long-term Plasticity at Individual Synapses in Hippocampus is Graded, Bidirectional, and Mainly Presynaptic: Optical Quantal Analysis Neuron. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19409269 Key aspects of the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) remain unresolved despite decades of investigation. Alterations in postsynaptic glutamate receptors are believed to contribute to the expression of various forms of LTP and LTD, but the relative importance of presynaptic mechanisms is controversial. In addition, while aggregate synaptic input to a cell can undergo sequential and graded (incremental) LTP and LTD, it has been suggested that individual synapses may only support binary changes between initial and modified levels of strength. We have addressed these issues by combining electrophysiological methods with two-photon optical quantal analysis of plasticity at individual active (non-silent) Schaffer collateral synapses on CA1 pyramidal neurons in acute slices of hippocampus from adolescent rats. We find that these synapses sustain graded, bidirectional long-term plasticity. Remarkably, changes in potency are small and insignificant; long-term plasticity at these synapses is expressed overwhelmingly via presynaptic changes in reliability of transmitter release.
Single-cell Resolution Fluorescence Imaging of Circadian Rhythms Detected with a Nipkow Spinning Disk Confocal System Journal of Neuroscience Methods. May, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22480987 Single-point laser scanning confocal imaging produces signals with high spatial resolution in living organisms. However, photo-induced toxicity, bleaching, and focus drift remain challenges, especially when recording over several days for monitoring circadian rhythms. Bioluminescence imaging is a tool widely used for this purpose, and does not cause photo-induced difficulties. However, bioluminescence signals are dimmer than fluorescence signals, and are potentially affected by levels of cofactors, including ATP, O(2), and the substrate, luciferin. Here we describe a novel time-lapse confocal imaging technique to monitor circadian rhythms in living tissues. The imaging system comprises a multipoint scanning Nipkow spinning disk confocal unit and a high-sensitivity EM-CCD camera mounted on an inverted microscope with auto-focusing function. Brain slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the central circadian clock, were prepared from transgenic mice expressing a clock gene, Period 1 (Per1), and fluorescence reporter protein (Per1::d2EGFP). The SCN slices were cut out together with membrane, flipped over, and transferred to the collagen-coated glass dishes to obtain signals with a high signal-to-noise ratio and to minimize focus drift. The imaging technique and improved culture method enabled us to monitor the circadian rhythm of Per1::d2EGFP from optically confirmed single SCN neurons without noticeable photo-induced effects or focus drift. Using recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying a genetically encoded calcium indicator, we also monitored calcium circadian rhythms at a single-cell level in a large population of SCN neurons. Thus, the Nipkow spinning disk confocal imaging system developed here facilitates long-term visualization of circadian rhythms in living cells.
Topological Specificity and Hierarchical Network of the Circadian Calcium Rhythm in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dec, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23213253 The circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a hierarchical multioscillator system in which neuronal networks play crucial roles in expressing coherent rhythms in physiology and behavior. However, our understanding of the neuronal network is still incomplete. Intracellular calcium mediates the input signals, such as phase-resetting stimuli, to the core molecular loop involving clock genes for circadian rhythm generation and the output signals from the loop to various cellular functions, including changes in neurotransmitter release. Using a unique large-scale calcium imaging method with genetically encoded calcium sensors, we visualized intracellular calcium from the entire surface of SCN slice in culture including the regions where autonomous clock gene expression was undetectable. We found circadian calcium rhythms at a single-cell level in the SCN, which were topologically specific with a larger amplitude and more delayed phase in the ventral region than the dorsal. The robustness of the rhythm was reduced but persisted even after blocking the neuronal firing with tetrodotoxin (TTX). Notably, TTX dissociated the circadian calcium rhythms between the dorsal and ventral SCN. In contrast, a blocker of gap junctions, carbenoxolone, had only a minor effect on the calcium rhythms at both the single-cell and network levels. These results reveal the topological specificity of the circadian calcium rhythm in the SCN and the presence of coupled regional pacemakers in the dorsal and ventral regions. Neuronal firings are not necessary for the persistence of the calcium rhythms but indispensable for the hierarchical organization of rhythmicity in the SCN.
A Method of Horizontally Sliced Preparation of the Retina Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23150369 Various types of retinal neurons, including amacrine, ganglion, and horizontal cells, expand neurites (dendrites or axons) in horizontal direction and make synaptic or electrical contacts with other cells to integrate the visual information. Many types of ion-channels and receptors are located along these neurites, and these horizontal connections critically contribute to the information processing in the retinal circuits. However, many of previous electrophysiological and immunocytochemical studies employed slice preparations cut by vertical direction in which most of these cells and their neurites were severely damaged and removed. This might lead to the underestimation of active and passive conductance in horizontally expanding neurites, and also missing of morphological information of horizontal structures. Here, we describe an alternative slicing method of horizontally cut preparation of the retina. The slice is made horizontally at the inner layer of the retina using a vibratome slicer after the retina is embedded in the low-temperature melting agarose gel. This horizontal slice preparation enables us to directly access cells in the inner retina by patch-clamp recording, calcium imaging, single RT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry. The method described here would offer an alternative strategy for studying the functions of neurons and neural circuits in the retina.
Network-mediated Encoding of Circadian Time: the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) from Genes to Neurons to Circuits, and Back The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Nov, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25392488 The transcriptional architecture of intracellular circadian clocks is similar across phyla, but in mammals interneuronal mechanisms confer a higher level of circadian integration. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a unique model to study these mechanisms, as it operates as a ∼24 h clock not only in the living animal, but also when isolated in culture. This "clock in a dish" can be used to address fundamental questions, such as how intraneuronal mechanisms are translated by SCN neurons into circuit-level emergent properties and how the circuit decodes, and responds to, light input. This review addresses recent developments in understanding the relationship between electrical activity, [Ca(2+)]i, and intracellular clocks. Furthermore, optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches to investigate the distinct roles of neurons and glial cells in circuit encoding of circadian time will be discussed, as well as the epigenetic and circuit-level mechanisms that enable the SCN to translate light input into coherent daily rhythms.