Articles by Salvatore Castaldo in JoVE
Assessment of Blood-brain Barrier Permeability by Intravenous Infusion of FITC-labeled Albumin in a Mouse Model of Neurodegenerative Disease Alba Di Pardo1, Salvatore Castaldo1, Luca Capocci1, Enrico Amico1, Vittorio Maglione1 1Centre for Neurogenetics and Rare Diseases, IRCCS Neuromed In this study, we present an easy and efficient procedure for evaluating the disruption of the blood-brain barrier under neurodegenerative conditions. To achieve our objective, we infused high molecular weight fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled (FITC)-albumin into mouse jugular vein and evaluated its leakage into the brain parenchyma by fluorescence microscopy.
Other articles by Salvatore Castaldo on PubMed
Impairment of Blood-brain Barrier is an Early Event in R6/2 Mouse Model of Huntington Disease Scientific Reports. Jan, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28117381 Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, due to the concomitant disruption of the tight junctions (TJs), normally required for the maintenance of BBB function, and to the altered transport of molecules between blood and brain and vice-versa, has been suggested to significantly contribute to the development and progression of different brain disorders including Huntington's disease (HD). Although the detrimental consequence the BBB breakdown may have in the clinical settings, the timing of its alteration remains elusive for many neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we demonstrate for the first time that BBB disruption in HD is not confined to established symptoms, but occurs early in the disease progression. Despite the obvious signs of impaired BBB permeability were only detectable in concomitance with the onset of the disease, signs of deranged TJs integrity occur precociously in the disease and precede the onset of overt symptoms. To our perspective this finding may add a new dimension to the horizons of pathological mechanisms underlying this devastating disease, however much remains to be elucidated for understanding how specific BBB drug targets can be approached in the future.
Defective Sphingosine-1-phosphate Metabolism is a Druggable Target in Huntington's Disease Scientific Reports. Jul, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28706199 Huntington's disease is characterized by a complex and heterogeneous pathogenic profile. Studies have shown that disturbance in lipid homeostasis may represent a critical determinant in the progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. The recognition of perturbed lipid metabolism is only recently becoming evident in HD. In order to provide more insight into the nature of such a perturbation and into the effect its modulation may have in HD pathology, we investigated the metabolism of Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), one of the most important bioactive lipids, in both animal models and patient samples. Here, we demonstrated that S1P metabolism is significantly disrupted in HD even at early stage of the disease and importantly, we revealed that such a dysfunction represents a common denominator among multiple disease models ranging from cells to humans through mouse models. Interestingly, the in vitro anti-apoptotic and the pro-survival actions seen after modulation of S1P-metabolizing enzymes allows this axis to emerge as a new druggable target and unfolds its promising therapeutic potential for the development of more effective and targeted interventions against this incurable condition.