In JoVE (1)
Articles by Sam Reiter in JoVE
New Methods to Study Gustatory Coding Alejandra Boronat-García*1, Sam Reiter*1,2, Kui Sun1, Mark Stopfer1 1National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), 2Max Planck Institute for Brain Research We present three new methods to study gustatory coding. Using a simple animal, the moth Manduca sexta (Manduca), we describe a dissection protocol, the use of extracellular tetrodes to record the activity of multiple gustatory receptor neurons, and a system for delivering and monitoring precisely timed pulses of tastants.
Other articles by Sam Reiter on PubMed
Spatiotemporal Coding of Individual Chemicals by the Gustatory System The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Sep, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26338341 Four of the five major sensory systems (vision, olfaction, somatosensation, and audition) are thought to use different but partially overlapping sets of neurons to form unique representations of vast numbers of stimuli. The only exception is gustation, which is thought to represent only small numbers of basic taste categories. However, using new methods for delivering tastant chemicals and making electrophysiological recordings from the tractable gustatory system of the moth Manduca sexta, we found chemical-specific information is as follows: (1) initially encoded in the population of gustatory receptor neurons as broadly distributed spatiotemporal patterns of activity; (2) dramatically integrated and temporally transformed as it propagates to monosynaptically connected second-order neurons; and (3) observed in tastant-specific behavior. Our results are consistent with an emerging view of the gustatory system: rather than constructing basic taste categories, it uses a spatiotemporal population code to generate unique neural representations of individual tastant chemicals.
Slow Waves, Sharp Waves, Ripples, and REM in Sleeping Dragons Science (New York, N.Y.). Apr, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27126045 Sleep has been described in animals ranging from worms to humans. Yet the electrophysiological characteristics of brain sleep, such as slow-wave (SW) and rapid eye movement (REM) activities, are thought to be restricted to mammals and birds. Recording from the brain of a lizard, the Australian dragon Pogona vitticeps, we identified SW and REM sleep patterns, thus pushing back the probable evolution of these dynamics at least to the emergence of amniotes. The SW and REM sleep patterns that we observed in lizards oscillated continuously for 6 to 10 hours with a period of ~80 seconds. The networks controlling SW-REM antagonism in amniotes may thus originate from a common, ancient oscillator circuit. Lizard SW dynamics closely resemble those observed in rodent hippocampal CA1, yet they originate from a brain area, the dorsal ventricular ridge, that has no obvious hodological similarity with the mammalian hippocampus.