Articles by Sarah J. Potter in JoVE
Using Ex Vivo Upright Droplet Cultures of Whole Fetal Organs to Study Developmental Processes during Mouse Organogenesis Sarah J. Potter1, Tony DeFalco1 1 The ex vivo upright droplet culture is an alternative to current in vitro and in vivo experimental techniques. This protocol is easy to perform and requires smaller amounts of reagent, while permitting the ability to manipulate and study fetal vascularization, morphogenesis, and organogenesis.
Other articles by Sarah J. Potter on PubMed
Deregulated Cell Cycle Control in Lens Epithelial Cells by Expression of Inhibitors of Tumor Suppressor Function Mechanisms of Development. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11850182 Previous studies have shown that cell cycle proteins such as retinoblastoma protein (pRB) are essential for cell cycle withdrawal in differentiating lens cells. However, little is known about which factors are critical for cell cycle control in the lens epithelial cells. Here we use the K14 promoter to direct expression of E6 and E7, oncogenes from human papillomavirus type 16, which are known to bind and inactivate p53 and pRB, as molecular tools to study cell cycle regulation in the lens epithelium of transgenic mice. Expression of either gene resulted in increased proliferation and apoptosis, and in the case of E6, a unique epithelial phenotype characterized by multilayering and intercellular vacuoles was observed. Lenses from mice expressing E7 mutants, which are defective in inactivating pRB proteins, were normal and the lens phenotype in the E6 mice was p53-independent. Thus, cell proliferation in the lens epithelium is controlled by multiple factors including, but not necessarily limited to, the pRB family.
Stability and Magnetically Induced Heating Behavior of Lipid-coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Nanoscale Research Letters. 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24134544 Magnetic nanoparticles that are currently explored for various biomedical applications exhibit a high propensity to minimize total surface energy through aggregation. This study introduces a unique, thermoresponsive nanocomposite design demonstrating substantial colloidal stability of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (SPIONs) due to a surface-immobilized lipid layer. Lipid coating was accomplished in different buffer systems, pH 7.4, using an equimolar mixture of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and l-α-dipalmitoylphosphatidyl glycerol (DPPG). Particle size and zeta potential were measured by dynamic laser light scattering. Heating behavior within an alternating magnetic field was compared between the commercial MFG-1000 magnetic field generator at 7 mT (1 MHz) and an experimental, laboratory-made magnetic hyperthermia system at 16.6 mT (13.7 MHz). The results revealed that product quality of lipid-coated SPIONs was significantly dependent on the colloidal stability of uncoated SPIONs during the coating process. Greatest stability was achieved at 0.02 mg/mL in citrate buffer (mean diameter = 80.0 ± 1.7 nm; zeta potential = -47.1 ± 2.6 mV). Surface immobilization of an equimolar DPPC/DPPG layer effectively reduced the impact of buffer components on particle aggregation. Most stable suspensions of lipid-coated nanoparticles were obtained at 0.02 mg/mL in citrate buffer (mean diameter = 179.3 ± 13.9 nm; zeta potential = -19.1 ± 2.3 mV). The configuration of the magnetic field generator significantly affected the heating properties of fabricated SPIONs. Heating rates of uncoated nanoparticles were substantially dependent on buffer composition but less influenced by particle concentration. In contrast, thermal behavior of lipid-coated nanoparticles within an alternating magnetic field was less influenced by suspension vehicle but dramatically more sensitive to particle concentration. These results underline the advantages of lipid-coated SPIONs on colloidal stability without compromising magnetically induced hyperthermia properties. Since phospholipids are biocompatible, these unique lipid-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles offer exciting opportunities as thermoresponsive drug delivery carriers for targeted, stimulus-induced therapeutic interventions. PACS: 7550Mw; 7575Cd; 8185Qr.
Macrophages Contribute to the Spermatogonial Niche in the Adult Testis Cell Reports. Aug, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26257171 The testis produces sperm throughout the male reproductive lifespan by balancing self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Part of the SSC niche is thought to lie outside the seminiferous tubules of the testis; however, specific interstitial components of the niche that regulate spermatogonial divisions and differentiation remain undefined. We identified distinct populations of testicular macrophages, one of which lies on the surface of seminiferous tubules, in close apposition to areas of tubules enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia. These macrophages express spermatogonial proliferation- and differentiation-inducing factors, such as colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and enzymes involved in retinoic acid (RA) biosynthesis. We show that transient depletion of macrophages leads to a disruption in spermatogonial differentiation. These findings reveal an unexpected role for macrophages in the spermatogonial niche in the testis and raise the possibility that macrophages play previously unappreciated roles in stem/progenitor cell regulation in other tissues.