Other Publications (12)
- Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society
- Journal of Lipid Research
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- Infection and Immunity
- Experimental and Molecular Pathology
- Biology Open
- Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
- Stem Cell Reports
- Nature Cell Biology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Articles by Sha Huang in JoVE
Real-time Measurement of Epithelial Barrier Permeability in Human Intestinal Organoids David R. Hill1, Sha Huang1, Yu-Hwai Tsai1, Jason R. Spence1,2, Vincent B. Young1,3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, University of Michigan This protocol describes the measurement of epithelial barrier permeability in real-time following pharmacologic treatment in human intestinal organoids using fluorescent microscopy and live cell microscopy.
Other articles by Sha Huang on PubMed
Reactivation of Methionine Synthase from Thermotoga Maritima (TM0268) Requires the Downstream Gene Product TM0269 Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17656578 The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80 degrees C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is approximately 15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37 degrees C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences.
Mechanism of LDL Binding and Release Probed by Structure-based Mutagenesis of the LDL Receptor Journal of Lipid Research. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19674976 The LDL receptor (LDL-R) mediates cholesterol metabolism in humans by binding and internalizing cholesterol transported by LDL. Several different molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the binding of LDL to LDL-R at neutral plasma pH and for its release at acidic endosomal pH. The crystal structure of LDL-R at acidic pH shows that the receptor folds back on itself in a closed form, obscuring parts of the ligand binding domain with the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-precursor homology domain. We have used a structure-based site-directed mutagenesis approach to examine 12 residues in the extracellular domain of LDL-R for their effect on LDL binding and release. Our studies show that the interface between the ligand binding domain and the EGF-precursor homology domain seen at acidic pH buries residues mediating both LDL binding and release. Our results are consistent with an alternative model of LDL-R whereby multiple modules of the extracellular domain interact with LDL at neutral pH, concurrently positioning key residues so that at acidic pH the LDL-R:LDL interactions become unfavorable, triggering release. After LDL release, the closed form of LDL-R may target its return to the cell surface.
Huntingtin-interacting Protein 1 Phosphorylation by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Molecular and Cellular Biology. Sep, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23836884 Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) binds inositol lipids, clathrin, actin, and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). HIP1 is elevated in many tumors, and its expression is prognostic in prostate cancer. HIP1 overexpression increases levels of the RTK epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transforms fibroblasts. Here we report that HIP1 is tyrosine phosphorylated in the presence of EGFR and platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR) as well as the oncogenic derivatives EGFRvIII, HIP1/PDGFβR (H/P), and TEL/PDGFβR (T/P). We identified a four-tyrosine "HIP1 phosphorylation motif" (HPM) in the N-terminal region of HIP1 that is required for phosphorylation mediated by both EGFR and PDGFβR but not by the oncoproteins H/P and T/P. We also identified a tyrosine residue (Y152) within the HPM motif of HIP1 that inhibits HIP1 tyrosine phosphorylation. The HPM tyrosines are conserved in HIP1's only known mammalian relative, HIP1-related protein (HIP1r), and are also required for HIP1r phosphorylation. Tyrosine-to-phenylalanine point mutations in the HPM of HIP1 result in proapoptotic activity, indicating that an intact HPM may be necessary for HIP1's role in cellular survival. These data suggest that phosphorylation of HIP1 by RTKs in an N-terminal region contributes to the promotion of cellular survival.
Endothelial PAS Domain Protein 1 Activates the Inflammatory Response in the Intestinal Epithelium to Promote Colitis in Mice Gastroenterology. Oct, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23860500 Hypoxic inflammation (decreased oxygen tension at sites of inflammation) is a feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The hypoxia response is mediated by the transcription factors hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α and endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1 or HIF2α), which are induced in intestinal tissues of patients with IBD. HIF1α limits intestinal barrier dysfunction, but the role of EPAS1 has not been assessed under conditions of hypoxic inflammation or in models of IBD.
Persistence and Toxin Production by Clostridium Difficile Within Human Intestinal Organoids Result in Disruption of Epithelial Paracellular Barrier Function Infection and Immunity. Jan, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25312952 Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhea. The pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) results from the interactions between the pathogen, intestinal epithelium, host immune system, and gastrointestinal microbiota. Previous studies of the host-pathogen interaction in CDI have utilized either simple cell monolayers or in vivo models. While much has been learned by utilizing these approaches, little is known about the direct interaction of the bacterium with a complex host epithelium. Here, we asked if human intestinal organoids (HIOs), which are derived from pluripotent stem cells and demonstrate small intestinal morphology and physiology, could be used to study the pathogenesis of the obligate anaerobe C. difficile. Vegetative C. difficile, microinjected into the lumen of HIOs, persisted in a viable state for up to 12 h. Upon colonization with C. difficile VPI 10463, the HIO epithelium is markedly disrupted, resulting in the loss of paracellular barrier function. Since similar effects were not observed when HIOs were colonized with the nontoxigenic C. difficile strain F200, we directly tested the role of toxin using TcdA and TcdB purified from VPI 10463. We show that the injection of TcdA replicates the disruption of the epithelial barrier function and structure observed in HIOs colonized with viable C. difficile.
Intestinal Organoids: a Model of Intestinal Fibrosis for Evaluating Anti-fibrotic Drugs Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Jun, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25828392 Intestinal fibrosis is a critical complication of Crohn's disease (CD). Current in vitro models of intestinal fibrosis cannot model the complex intestinal architecture, while in vivo rodent models do not fully recapitulate human disease and have limited utility for large-scale screening. Here, we exploit recent advances in stem cell derived human intestinal organoids (HIOs) as a new human model of fibrosis in CD.
Generation of Tissue-engineered Small Intestine Using Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Human Intestinal Organoids Biology Open. Oct, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26459240 Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue.
LGR4 and LGR5 Function Redundantly During Human Endoderm Differentiation Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Sep, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 28078320 The Lgr family of transmembrane proteins (Lgr4, 5, 6) act as functional receptors for R-spondin proteins (Rspo 1, 2, 3, 4), and potentiate Wnt signaling in different contexts. Lgr5 is arguably the best characterized of the Lgr family members in a number of adult and embryonic contexts in mice. However, the function of LGR family members in early embryonic development is unclear, and has not been explored during human development or tissue differentiation in detail.
Neural Crest Cell Implantation Restores Enteric Nervous System Function and Alters the Gastrointestinal Transcriptome in Human Tissue-Engineered Small Intestine Stem Cell Reports. Sep, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28803915 Acquired or congenital disruption in enteric nervous system (ENS) development or function can lead to significant mechanical dysmotility. ENS restoration through cellular transplantation may provide a cure for enteric neuropathies. We have previously generated human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from human intestinal organoids (HIOs). However, HIO-TESI fails to develop an ENS. The purpose of our study is to restore ENS components derived exclusively from hPSCs in HIO-TESI. hPSC-derived enteric neural crest cell (ENCC) supplementation of HIO-TESI establishes submucosal and myenteric ganglia, repopulates various subclasses of neurons, and restores neuroepithelial connections and neuron-dependent contractility and relaxation in ENCC-HIO-TESI. RNA sequencing identified differentially expressed genes involved in neurogenesis, gliogenesis, gastrointestinal tract development, and differentiated epithelial cell types when ENS elements are restored during in vivo development of HIO-TESI. Our findings validate an effective approach to restoring hPSC-derived ENS components in HIO-TESI and may implicate their potential for the treatment of enteric neuropathies.
Synthetic Hydrogels for Human Intestinal Organoid Generation and Colonic Wound Repair Nature Cell Biology. Nov, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 29058719 In vitro differentiation of human intestinal organoids (HIOs) from pluripotent stem cells is an unparalleled system for creating complex, multicellular three-dimensional structures capable of giving rise to tissue analogous to native human tissue. Current methods for generating HIOs rely on growth in an undefined tumour-derived extracellular matrix (ECM), which severely limits the use of organoid technologies for regenerative and translational medicine. Here, we developed a fully defined, synthetic hydrogel based on a four-armed, maleimide-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) macromer that supports robust and highly reproducible in vitro growth and expansion of HIOs, such that three-dimensional structures are never embedded in tumour-derived ECM. We also demonstrate that the hydrogel serves as an injection vehicle that can be delivered into injured intestinal mucosa resulting in HIO engraftment and improved colonic wound repair. Together, these studies show proof-of-concept that HIOs may be used therapeutically to treat intestinal injury.
Quantitative Proteomics Identifies STEAP4 As a Critical Regulator of Mitochondrial Dysfunction Linking Inflammation and Colon Cancer Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 29078383 Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder and is a major risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Hypoxia is a feature of IBD and modulates cellular and mitochondrial metabolism. However, the role of hypoxic metabolism in IBD is unclear. Because mitochondrial dysfunction is an early hallmark of hypoxia and inflammation, an unbiased proteomics approach was used to assess the mitochondria in a mouse model of colitis. Through this analysis, we identified a ferrireductase: six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate 4 (STEAP4) was highly induced in mouse models of colitis and in IBD patients. STEAP4 was regulated in a hypoxia-dependent manner that led to a dysregulation in mitochondrial iron balance, enhanced reactive oxygen species production, and increased susceptibility to mouse models of colitis. Mitochondrial iron chelation therapy improved colitis and demonstrated an essential role of mitochondrial iron dysregulation in the pathogenesis of IBD. To address if mitochondrial iron dysregulation is a key mechanism by which inflammation impacts colon tumorigenesis, STEAP4 expression, function, and mitochondrial iron chelation were assessed in a colitis-associated colon cancer model (CAC). STEAP4 was increased in human CRC and predicted poor prognosis. STEAP4 and mitochondrial iron increased tumor number and burden in a CAC model. These studies demonstrate the importance of mitochondrial iron homeostasis in IBD and CRC.
Bacterial Colonization Stimulates a Complex Physiological Response in the Immature Human Intestinal Epithelium ELife. Nov, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 29110754 The human gastrointestinal tract is immature at birth, yet must adapt to dramatic changes such as oral nutrition and microbial colonization. The confluence of these factors can lead to severe inflammatory disease in premature infants; however, investigating complex environment-host interactions is difficult due to limited access to immature human tissue. Here, we demonstrate that the epithelium of human pluripotent stem-cell-derived human intestinal organoids is globally similar to the immature human epithelium and we utilize HIOs to investigate complex host-microbe interactions in this naive epithelium. Our findings demonstrate that the immature epithelium is intrinsically capable of establishing a stable host-microbe symbiosis. Microbial colonization leads to complex contact and hypoxia driven responses resulting in increased antimicrobial peptide production, maturation of the mucus layer, and improved barrier function. These studies lay the groundwork for an improved mechanistic understanding of how colonization influences development of the immature human intestine.