In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (9)

Articles by Sharon Sanderson in JoVE

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Measurement of T Cell Alloreactivity Using Imaging Flow Cytometry

1Division of Respirology, Departments of Medicine and Immunology, Toronto Lung Transplant Program, Multiorgan Transplant Program, Toronto General Research Institute, University of Toronto and University Health Network, 2Latner Thoracic Surgery Laboratories, Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, 3National Institutes of Health Research, Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Translational Immunology Laboratory, NDORMS, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford, 4Transplantation Research Immunology Group, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford

JoVE 55283

Other articles by Sharon Sanderson on PubMed

Benzoquinone Ansamycin Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitors Modulate Multiple Functions Required for Tumor Angiogenesis

Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. Mar, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16546966

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone involved in maintaining the correct conformation and stability of its client proteins. This study investigated the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors on client protein expression and key cellular functions required for tumor angiogenesis. The benzoquinone ansamycin Hsp90 inhibitors geldanamycin and/or its derivatives 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin inhibited production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A by tumor cells and blocked proliferative responses of human endothelial cells at nanomolar concentrations. 17-AAG also significantly reduced endothelial cell migration, tubular differentiation, invasion through Matrigel, and secretion of urokinase-type plasminogen activator at concentrations at or below those that inhibited proliferation. 17-AAG significantly reduced expression of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 and established Hsp90 client proteins in human endothelial cells in vitro as well as in mouse vena cava, mesenteric vessels, and blood vessels within human tumor xenografts in vivo; this was associated with decreased tumor microvessel density. Finally, we showed for the first time that Hsp90 inhibitors also reduce expression of VEGFR-1 on human vascular endothelial cells, VEGFR-3 on lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro, and all three VEGFRs on mouse vasculature in vivo. Thus, we identify Hsp90 inhibitors as important regulators of many aspects of tumor angiogenesis (and potentially lymphangiogenesis) and suggest that they may provide therapeutic benefit not only via direct effects on tumor cells but also indirectly by inhibiting the production of angiogenic cytokines and responses of activated endothelial cells that contribute to tumor progression and metastasis.

In Vitro Biological Characterization of a Novel, Synthetic Diaryl Pyrazole Resorcinol Class of Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitors

Cancer Research. Mar, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17332351

The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) has emerged as an exciting molecular target. Derivatives of the natural product geldanamycin, such as 17-allylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-AAG), were the first HSP90 ATPase inhibitors to enter clinical trial. Synthetic small-molecule HSP90 inhibitors have potential advantages. Here, we describe the biological properties of the lead compound of a new class of 3,4-diaryl pyrazole resorcinol HSP90 inhibitor (CCT018159), which we identified by high-throughput screening. CCT018159 inhibited human HSP90beta with comparable potency to 17-AAG and with similar ATP-competitive kinetics. X-ray crystallographic structures of the NH(2)-terminal domain of yeast Hsp90 complexed with CCT018159 or its analogues showed binding properties similar to radicicol. The mean cellular GI(50) value of CCT018159 across a panel of human cancer cell lines, including melanoma, was 5.3 mumol/L. Unlike 17-AAG, the in vitro antitumor activity of the pyrazole resorcinol analogues is independent of NQO1/DT-diaphorase and P-glycoprotein expression. The molecular signature of HSP90 inhibition, comprising increased expression of HSP72 protein and depletion of ERBB2, CDK4, C-RAF, and mutant B-RAF, was shown by Western blotting and quantified by time-resolved fluorescent-Cellisa in human cancer cell lines treated with CCT018159. CCT018159 caused cell cytostasis associated with a G(1) arrest and induced apoptosis. CCT018159 also inhibited key endothelial and tumor cell functions implicated in invasion and angiogenesis. Overall, we have shown that diaryl pyrazole resorcinols exhibited similar cellular properties to 17-AAG with potential advantages (e.g., aqueous solubility, independence from NQO1 and P-glycoprotein). These compounds form the basis for further structure-based optimization to identify more potent inhibitors suitable for clinical development.

A Novel Method of Differential Gene Expression Analysis Using Multiple CDNA Libraries Applied to the Identification of Tumour Endothelial Genes

BMC Genomics. Apr, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18394197

In this study, differential gene expression analysis using complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries has been improved. Firstly by the introduction of an accurate method of assigning Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) to genes and secondly, by using a novel likelihood ratio statistical scoring of differential gene expression between two pools of cDNA libraries. These methods were applied to the latest available cell line and bulk tissue cDNA libraries in a two-step screen to predict novel tumour endothelial markers. Initially, endothelial cell lines were in silico subtracted from non-endothelial cell lines to identify endothelial genes. Subsequently, a second bulk tumour versus normal tissue subtraction was employed to predict tumour endothelial markers.

ECSM2, an Endothelial Specific Filamin a Binding Protein That Mediates Chemotaxis

Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Sep, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18556573

We aimed to characterize the expression and function of a novel transcript that bioinformatics analysis predicted to be endothelial specific, called endothelial-specific molecule-2 (ECSM2).

In Vitro Assays for Endothelial Cell Functions Related to Angiogenesis: Proliferation, Motility, Tubular Differentiation, and Proteolysis

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19301670

This chapter covers the breakdown of the process of angiogenesis into simple assays to measure discrete endothelial cell functions. The techniques described are suitable for studying stimulators or inhibitors of angiogenesis and determining which aspect of the process is modulated. The procedures outlined are robust and straightforward but cannot cover the complexity of the angiogenic process as a whole, incorporating as it does myriad positive and negative signals, three-dimensional interactions with host tissues and many accessory cells, including fibroblasts, macrophages, pericytes, and platelets. The extent to which in vitro assays predict responses in vivo (e.g., wound healing, tumor angiogenesis, or surrogate techniques such as Matrigel plugs, sponge implants, corneal assays, etc.) remains to be determined.

Gene Set Analysis of Lung Samples Provides Insight into Pathogenesis of Progressive, Fibrotic Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Jun, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20194811

Approximately 60 to 70% of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis have disease that resolves spontaneously; the rest follow a chronic course with varying levels of fibrosis. It is unclear why some patients progress and if treatment affects outcome.

Activation of Invariant NKT Cells in Early Phase of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Results in Differentiation of Ly6Chi Inflammatory Monocyte to M2 Macrophages and Improved Outcome

Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Jul, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22685310

Neuropathology in multiple sclerosis is closely linked to presence of macrophages in the CNS. Both M1 (inflammatory) and M2 (alternatively activated, noninflammatory) macrophages are found in the inflamed CNS and thought to differentiate from infiltrating monocytes. It is unclear whether the balance of M1 and M2 macrophages can be altered and whether this affects disease outcome. We show in this article that Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes are the early and dominant infiltrating cells in the CNS during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for the acute phase of multiple sclerosis. Activation of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells reduced the frequency of Ly6C(hi) monocytes and increased the proportion of M2 macrophages in the CNS with associated improvement in neurologic impairment. In contrast, iNKT-deficient mice showed higher numbers of Ly6C(hi) monocytes, reduced M2, and much more severe disease. Adoptive transfer of M2-enriched cells to iNKT-deficient mice markedly improved neurologic impairment. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that iNKT cells promote differentiation of monocytes to M2 macrophages in an IL-4 and CD1d-dependent process. These findings indicate that infiltrating Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes are early players in acute neuroinflammation and that their frequency and differentiation can be influenced by activation of iNKT cells with resultant improvement in disease outcome.

Dual Proteolytic Pathways Govern Glycolysis and Immune Competence

Cell. Dec, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25525876

Proteasomes and lysosomes constitute the major cellular systems that catabolize proteins to recycle free amino acids for energy and new protein synthesis. Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII) is a large cytosolic proteolytic complex that functions in tandem with the proteasome-ubiquitin protein degradation pathway. We found that autosomal recessive TPP2 mutations cause recurrent infections, autoimmunity, and neurodevelopmental delay in humans. We show that a major function of TPPII in mammalian cells is to maintain amino acid levels and that TPPII-deficient cells compensate by increasing lysosome number and proteolytic activity. However, the overabundant lysosomes derange cellular metabolism by consuming the key glycolytic enzyme hexokinase-2 through chaperone-mediated autophagy. This reduces glycolysis and impairs the production of effector cytokines, including IFN-γ and IL-1β. Thus, TPPII controls the balance between intracellular amino acid availability, lysosome number, and glycolysis, which is vital for adaptive and innate immunity and neurodevelopmental health.

Exposure to Zidovudine Adversely Affects Mitochondrial Turnover in Primary T Cells

Antiviral Research. Sep, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27496003

Zidovudine (ZDV) is a widely used component of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, despite its known adverse effects, which include mitochondrial toxicity in muscle, liver and adipose tissue. It has also been associated with impaired immunological recovery. We hypothesised that ZDV might impair mitochondrial health and survival of primary T cells. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of mitochondrial function, mitophagy and susceptibility to apoptosis in healthy donor primary T cells after exposure to ZDV in vitro, together with T cells from patients who were virologically suppressed on ZDV-containing ART regimens for ≥1 year and age-matched subjects receiving non-ZDV ART regimens. The proportion of T cells expressing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) was significantly higher after in vitro (CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells) and in vivo (CD4(+) T cells) exposure to ZDV than other antiretroviral agents. We did not detect any effect of ZDV on mitophagy, as indicated by change in autophagic flux. However, spontaneous apoptosis, indicated by upregulation of caspase-3 was greater in ZDV-exposed T cells. In conclusion, ZDV exposure was associated with impaired mitochondrial turnover and increased susceptibility to apoptosis in T cells. These mechanisms could contribute to sub-optimal immune reconstitution.

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