Articles by Sifei Han in JoVE
The Mesenteric Lymph Duct Cannulated Rat Model: Application to the Assessment of Intestinal Lymphatic Drug Transport Natalie L. Trevaskis1, Luojuan Hu1, Suzanne M. Caliph1, Sifei Han1, Christopher J.H. Porter1 1Drug Delivery, Disposition, and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University (Parkville Campus) Here we describe a technique to cannulate the mesenteric lymph duct in rats which enables quantification of lipid and drug transport via the lymphatic system following intestinal delivery. The technique can be adapted to assess mesenteric lymph concentrations and/or transport of fluid, immune cells, peptides, proteins and lipophilic molecules.
Other articles by Sifei Han on PubMed
The Impact of Lymphatic Transport on the Systemic Disposition of Lipophilic Drugs Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Jul, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23696002 This work investigates the influence of drug absorption route (intestinal lymphatics vs. blood supply) on drug pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution. To achieve this aim, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of model compounds [1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane, DDT; halofantrine] and lipids were assessed following intravenous delivery in lymph lipoproteins or plasma, and were found to differ significantly. For DDT, the clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (Vd ) were higher, whereas for halofantrine, CL and V(d) were lower, after entry in lymph versus plasma due, in particular, to differences in adipose tissue and liver uptake. In a recent study, halofantrine CL and V(d) were similar following entry in lymph or entry in plasma into the systemic circulation of animals predosed with lymph, whereas in the current study, predosing lymph did not influence DDT CL and V(d). For compounds such as DDT, changes to the route of absorption may thus directly impact on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution, whereas for halofantrine factors that influence lymphatic transport may, by altering systemic lipoprotein concentrations, indirectly impact pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution. Ultimately, careful control of dosing conditions (formulation, prandial state), and thus the extent of lymphatic transport, may be important in assuring reproducible efficacy and toxicity for lymphatically transported drugs.
Targeted Delivery of a Model Immunomodulator to the Lymphatic System: Comparison of Alkyl Ester Versus Triglyceride Mimetic Lipid Prodrug Strategies Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society. Mar, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24398334 A lipophilic prodrug approach has been used to promote the delivery of a model immunomodulator, mycophenolic acid (MPA), to the lymphatic system after oral administration. Lymphatic transport was employed to facilitate enhanced drug uptake into lymphocytes, as recent studies demonstrate that targeted drug delivery to lymph resident lymphocytes may enhance immunomodulatory effects. Two classes of lymph-directing prodrugs were synthesised. Alkyl chain derivatives (octyl mycophenolate, MPA-C8E; octadecyl mycophenolate, MPA-C18E; and octadecyl mycophenolamide, MPA-C18AM), to promote passive partitioning into lipids in lymphatic transport pathways, and a triglyceride mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) to facilitate metabolic integration into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. Lymphatic transport, lymphocyte uptake and plasma pharmacokinetics were assessed in mesenteric lymph and carotid artery cannulated rats following intraduodenal infusion of lipid-based formulations containing MPA or MPA prodrugs. Patterns of prodrug hydrolysis in rat digestive fluid, and cellular re-esterification in vivo, were evaluated to examine the mechanisms responsible for lymphatic transport. Poor enzyme stability and low absorption appeared to limit lymphatic transport of the alkyl derivatives, although two of the three alkyl chain prodrugs - MPA-C18AM (6-fold) and MPA-C18E (13-fold) still increased lymphatic drug transport when compared to MPA. In contrast, 2-MPA-TG markedly increased lymphatic drug transport (80-fold) and drug concentrations in lymphocytes (103-fold), and this was achieved via biochemical incorporation into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. The prodrug was hydrolysed rapidly to 2-mycophenoloyl glycerol (2-MPA-MG) in the presence of rat digestive fluid, and 2-MPA-MG was subsequently re-esterified in the enterocyte with oleic acid (most likely originating from the co-administered formulation) prior to accessing the lymphatics and lymphocytes. Importantly, after administration of 2-MPA-TG, the concentrations of free MPA in the mesenteric lymph nodes were significantly enhanced (up to 28 fold) when compared to animals administered equimolar quantities of MPA, suggesting the efficient conversion of the esterified prodrug back to the pharmacologically active parent drug. The data suggest that triglyceride mimetic prodrugs have potential as a means of enhancing immunotherapy via drug targeting to lymphocytes and lymph nodes.
Profiling the Role of Deacylation-Reacylation in the Lymphatic Transport of a Triglyceride-Mimetic Prodrug Pharmaceutical Research. Dec, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25446770 Recent studies have demonstrated the potential for a triglyceride (TG) mimetic prodrug to promote the delivery of mycophenolic acid (MPA) to the lymphatic system. Here, the metabolic pathways that facilitate the lymphatic transport of the TG prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) were examined to better inform the design of next generation prodrugs.