Articles by Simon W. Fellgett in JoVE
Using Confocal Analysis of Xenopus laevis to Investigate Modulators of Wnt and Shh Morphogen Gradients Simon W. Fellgett1, Simon A. Ramsbottom2, Richard J. Maguire3, Stephen Cross4, Peter O'Toole5, Mary E. Pownall5 1Department of Biomedical Science, The Bateson Centre, University of Sheffield, 2Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, 3Department of Cardiovascular Science, The Bateson Centre, University of Sheffield, 4School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, 5Biology Department, University of York The manuscript here provides a simple set of methods for analysing the secretion and diffusion of fluorescently tagged ligands in Xenopus. This provides a context for testing the ability of other proteins to modify ligand distribution and allowing experiments that may give insight into mechanisms regulating morphogen gradients.
Other articles by Simon W. Fellgett on PubMed
Wnt-dependent Osteogenic Commitment of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Using a Novel GSK3β Inhibitor Stem Cell Research. Mar, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24382458 Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) can differentiate into multiple lineages including osteogenic and adipogenic cells. Wnt signalling has been implicated in controlling BMSC fate, but the mechanisms are unclear and apparently conflicting data exist. Here we show that a novel glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor, AR28, is a potent activator of canonical Wnt signalling using in vitro β-catenin translocation studies and TCF-reporter assays. In vivo, AR28 induced characteristic axis duplication and secondary regions of chordin expression in Xenopus laevis embryos. Using human BMSCs grown in adipogenic medium, we confirmed that AR28-mediated Wnt signalling caused a significant (p
Sulf1 Influences the Shh Morphogen Gradient During the Dorsal Ventral Patterning of the Neural Tube in Xenopus Tropicalis Developmental Biology. Jul, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24768893 Genetic studies have established that heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are required for signalling by key developmental regulators, including Hedgehog, Wnt/Wg, FGF, and BMP/Dpp. Post-synthetic remodelling of heparan sulphate (HS) by Sulf1 has been shown to modulate these same signalling pathways. Sulf1 codes for an N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-endosulfatase, an enzyme that specifically removes the 6-O sulphate group from glucosamine in highly sulfated regions of HS chains. One striking aspect of Sulf1 expression in all vertebrates is its co-localisation with that of Sonic hedgehog in the floor plate of the neural tube. We show here that Sulf1 is required for normal specification of neural progenitors in the ventral neural tube, a process known to require a gradient of Shh activity. We use single-cell injection of mRNA coding for GFP-tagged Shh in early Xenopus embryos and find that Sulf1 restricts ligand diffusion. Moreover, we find that the endogenous distribution of Shh protein in Sulf1 knockdown embryos is altered, where a less steep ventral to dorsal gradient forms in the absence of Sulf1, resulting in more a diffuse distribution of Shh. These data point to an important role for Sulf1 in the ventral neural tube, and suggests a mechanism whereby Sulf1 activity shapes the Shh morphogen gradient by promoting ventral accumulation of high levels of Shh protein.
Sulf1 Has Ligand-dependent Effects on Canonical and Non-canonical Wnt Signalling Journal of Cell Science. Apr, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25681501 Wnt signalling plays essential roles during embryonic development and is known to be mis-regulated in human disease. There are many molecular mechanisms that ensure tight regulation of Wnt activity. One such regulator is the heparan-sulfate-specific 6-O-endosulfatase Sulf1. Sulf1 acts extracellularly to modify the structure of heparan sulfate chains to affect the bio-availability of Wnt ligands. Sulf1 could, therefore, influence the formation of Wnt signalling complexes to modulate the activation of both canonical and non-canonical pathways. In this study, we use well-established assays in Xenopus to investigate the ability of Sulf1 to modify canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling. In addition, we model the ability of Sulf1 to influence morphogen gradients using fluorescently tagged Wnt ligands in ectodermal explants. We show that Sulf1 overexpression has ligand-specific effects on Wnt signalling: it affects membrane accumulation and extracellular levels of tagged Wnt8a and Wnt11b ligands differently, and inhibits the activity of canonical Wnt8a but enhances the activity of non-canonical Wnt11b.