Articles by Smart Mbagwu in JoVE
Evaluation of Extracellular Vesicle Function During Malaria Infection María Andrea Hernández-Castañeda*1, Smart Mbagwu*1, Kehinde Adebayo Babatunde*1, Michael Walch1, Luis Filgueira1, Pierre-Yves Mantel1 1Department of Medicine, University of Fribourg In this work, we describe protocols to investigate the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. In particular, we focus on the interactions of EVs with endothelial cells.
Other articles by Smart Mbagwu on PubMed
Production and Characterization of Extracellular Vesicles in Malaria Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). | Pubmed ID: 28828673 Growing attention is drawn toward the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in infectious diseases. EVs, which are small vesicles released by cells, are involved in cellular communication, immune regulation, and pathogenesis. EVs act as messenger carrying functional cargoes, including RNA, DNA, lipids and proteins from a donor cell to regulate the function of a recipient cell. In malaria, EVs play a key role in regulating the progression from the blood to the transmission stage by promoting the switch between asexual and sexual stages that are taken up by mosquitoes. In addition to their role in parasite communication, EVs modulate the immune system and regulate endothelial cell function.In this chapter, we describe protocols to isolate, purify and characterize EVs derived from Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cell culture.
Malaria Infected Red Blood Cells Release Small Regulatory RNAs Through Extracellular Vesicles Scientific Reports. | Pubmed ID: 29343745 The parasite Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of malaria. Cell communication between parasites is an important mechanism to control population density and differentiation. The infected red blood cells (iRBCs) release small extracellular vesicles (EVs) that transfer cargoes between cells. The EVs synchronize the differentiation of the asexual parasites into gametocytes to initiate the transmission to the mosquito. Beside their role in parasite communication, EVs regulate vascular function. So far, the exact cargoes responsible for cellular communication remain unknown. We isolated EVs from cultured iRBCs to determine their small RNA content. We identified several types of human and plasmodial regulatory RNAs. While the miRNAs and tRNA-derived fragments were the most abundant human RNAs, we also found Y-RNAs, vault RNAs, snoRNAs and piRNAs. Interestingly, we found about 120 plasmodial RNAs, including mRNAs coding for exported proteins and proteins involved in drug resistance, as well as non-coding RNAs, such as rRNAs, small nuclear (snRNAs) and tRNAs. These data show, that iRBC-EVs carry small regulatory RNAs. A role in cellular communication is possible since the RNAs were transferred to endothelial cells. Furthermore, the presence of Plasmodium RNAs, in EVs suggests that they may be used as biomarker to track and detect disease.