In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (9)

Articles by Stefan Salminger in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

A Rapid Automated Protocol for Muscle Fiber Population Analysis in Rat Muscle Cross Sections Using Myosin Heavy Chain Immunohistochemistry

1CD Laboratory for the Restoration of Extremity Function, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, 2Core Facility Imaging, Core Facilities, Medical University Vienna, 3Department of Hand, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Burn Center, BG Trauma Center Ludwigshafen, Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Heidelberg

JoVE 55441

Other articles by Stefan Salminger on PubMed

Noninvasive, Accurate Assessment of the Behavior of Representative Populations of Motor Units in Targeted Reinnervated Muscles

IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering : a Publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Jul, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24760935

Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) redirects nerves that have lost their target, due to amputation, to remaining muscles in the region of the stump with the intent of establishing intuitive myosignals to control a complex prosthetic device. In order to directly recover the neural code underlying an attempted limb movement, in this paper, we present the decomposition of high-density surface electromyographic (EMG) signals detected from three TMR patients into the individual motor unit spike trains. The aim was to prove, for the first time, the feasibility of decoding the neural drive that would reach muscles of the missing limb in TMR patients, to show the accuracy of the decoding, and to demonstrate the representativeness of the pool of extracted motor units. Six to seven flexible EMG electrode grids of 64 electrodes each were mounted over the reinnervated muscles of each patient, resulting in up to 448 EMG signals. The subjects were asked to attempt elbow extension and flexion, hand open and close, wrist extension and flexion, wrist pronation and supination, of their missing limb. The EMG signals were decomposed using the Convolution Kernel Compensation technique and the decomposition accuracy was evaluated with a signal-based index of accuracy, called pulse-to-noise ratio (PNR). The results showed that the spike trains of 3 to 27 motor units could be identified for each task, with a sensitivity of the decomposition > 90%, as revealed by PNR. The motor unit discharge rates were within physiological values of normally innervated muscles. Moreover, the detected motor units showed a high degree of common drive so that the set of extracted units per task was representative of the behavior of the population of active units. The results open a path for a new generation of human-machine interfaces in which the control signals are extracted from noninvasive recordings and the obtained neural information is based directly on the spike trains of motor neurons.

Bionic Reconstruction to Restore Hand Function After Brachial Plexus Injury: a Case Series of Three Patients

Lancet (London, England). May, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25724529

Brachial plexus injuries can permanently impair hand function, yet present surgical reconstruction provides only poor results. Here, we present for the first time bionic reconstruction; a combined technique of selective nerve and muscle transfers, elective amputation, and prosthetic rehabilitation to regain hand function.

Prosthesis Control with an Implantable Multichannel Wireless Electromyography System for High-Level Amputees: A Large-Animal Study

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Jan, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26710019

Myoelectric prostheses lack a strong human-machine interface, leading to high abandonment rates in upper limb amputees. Implantable wireless electromyography systems improve control by recording signals directly from muscle, compared with surface electromyography. These devices do not exist for high amputation levels. In this article, the authors present an implantable wireless electromyography system for these scenarios tested in Merino sheep for 4 months.

Automated Muscle Fiber Type Population Analysis with ImageJ of Whole Rat Muscles Using Rapid Myosin Heavy Chain Immunohistochemistry

Muscle & Nerve. Aug, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26788932

Skeletal muscle consists of different fiber types which adapt to exercise, aging, disease, or trauma. Here we present a protocol for fast staining, automatic acquisition, and quantification of fiber populations with ImageJ.

Improving Arm Function by Prosthetic Limb Replacement in a Patient with Severe Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. Oct, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27534547

In patients with severe bilateral congenital arm deficiencies, even simple activities of daily living, such as feeding, may be major challenges. We report here a case of a patient with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita affecting all 4 extremities, who underwent prosthetic replacement after elective transhumeral amputation of his right functionless arm.

Functional and Psychosocial Outcomes of Hand Transplantation Compared with Prosthetic Fitting in Below-Elbow Amputees: A Multicenter Cohort Study

PloS One. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27589057

Hand-transplantation and improvements in the field of prostheses opened new frontiers in restoring hand function in below-elbow amputees. Both concepts aim at restoring reliable hand function, however, the indications, advantages and limitations for each treatment must be carefully considered depending on level and extent of amputation. Here we report our findings of a multi-center cohort study comparing hand function and quality-of-life of people with transplanted versus prosthetic hands.

Attachment of Upper Arm Prostheses with a Subcutaneous Osseointegrated Implant in Transhumeral Amputees

Prosthetics and Orthotics International. Sep, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27638013

The stump-socket interface is of utmost importance for prosthetic function in transhumeral amputees. Stability of this connection may be improved using a newly designed subcutaneous implant.

Elective Amputation and Bionic Substitution Restore Functional Hand Use After Critical Soft Tissue Injuries

Scientific Reports. Oct, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27721419

Critical soft tissue injuries may lead to a non-functional and insensate limb. In these cases standard reconstructive techniques will not suffice to provide a useful outcome, and solutions outside the biological arena must be considered and offered to these patients. We propose a concept which, after all reconstructive options have been exhausted, involves an elective amputation along with a bionic substitution, implementing an actuated prosthetic hand via a structured tech-neuro-rehabilitation program. Here, three patients are presented in whom this concept has been successfully applied after mutilating hand injuries. Clinical tests conducted before, during and after the procedure, evaluating both functional and psychometric parameters, document the benefits of this approach. Additionally, in one of the patients, we show the possibility of implementing a highly functional and natural control of an advanced prosthesis providing both proportional and simultaneous movements of the wrist and hand for completing tasks of daily living with substantially less compensatory movements compared to the traditional systems. It is concluded that the proposed procedure is a viable solution for re-gaining highly functional hand use following critical soft tissue injuries when existing surgical measures fail. Our results are clinically applicable and can be extended to institutions with similar resources.

Algorithm for Bionic Hand Reconstruction in Patients with Global Brachial Plexopathies

Journal of Neurosurgery. Jan, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28093018

OBJECTIVE Global brachial plexus lesions with multiple root avulsions are among the most severe nerve injuries, leading to lifelong disability. Fortunately, in most cases primary and secondary reconstructions provide a stable shoulder and restore sufficient arm function. Restoration of biological hand function, however, remains a reconstructive goal that is difficult to reach. The recently introduced concept of bionic reconstruction overcomes biological limitations of classic reconstructive surgery to restore hand function by combining selective nerve and muscle transfers with elective amputation of the functionless hand and its replacement with a prosthetic device. The authors present their treatment algorithm for bionic hand reconstruction and report on the management and long-term functional outcomes of patients with global brachial plexopathies who have undergone this innovative treatment. METHODS Thirty-four patients with posttraumatic global brachial plexopathies leading to loss of hand function consulted the Center for Advanced Restoration of Extremity Function between 2011 and 2015. Of these patients, 16 (47%) qualified for bionic reconstruction due to lack of treatment alternatives. The treatment algorithm included progressive steps with the intent of improving the biotechnological interface to allow optimal prosthetic hand replacement. In 5 patients, final functional outcome measurements were obtained with the Action Arm Research Test (ARAT), the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. RESULTS In all 5 patients who completed functional assessments, partial hand function was restored with bionic reconstruction. ARAT scores improved from 3.4 ± 4.3 to 25.4 ± 12.7 (p = 0.043; mean ± SD) and SHAP scores improved from 10.0 ± 1.6 to 55 ± 19.7 (p = 0.042). DASH scores decreased from 57.9 ± 20.6 to 32 ± 28.6 (p = 0.042), indicating decreased disability. CONCLUSIONS The authors present an algorithm for bionic reconstruction leading to useful hand function in patients who lack biological treatment alternatives for a stiff, functionless, and insensate hand resulting from global brachial plexopathies.

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