Articles by Stefanie Heidrich in JoVE
Isolation and Cultivation of Neural Progenitors Followed by Chromatin-Immunoprecipitation of Histone 3 Lysine 79 Dimethylation Mark Patrick Bovio1,2, Deborah Roidl1, Stefanie Heidrich1, Tanja Vogel1, Henriette Franz1 1Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Molecular Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 2Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg We present an effective and reproducible method to isolate and culture neural progenitor cells from embryonic and postnatal brain tissue for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of histone 3 lysine 79 dimethylation (H3K79me2) - a histone mark located within the globular domain of histone 3.
Other articles by Stefanie Heidrich on PubMed
The FOXG1/FOXO/SMAD Network Balances Proliferation and Differentiation of Cortical Progenitors and Activates Kcnh3 Expression in Mature Neurons Oncotarget. | Pubmed ID: 27224923 Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-mediated anti-proliferative and differentiating effects promote neuronal differentiation during embryonic central nervous system development. TGFβ downstream signals, composed of activated SMAD2/3, SMAD4 and a FOXO family member, promote the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Cdkn1a. In early CNS development, IGF1/PI3K signaling and the transcription factor FOXG1 inhibit FOXO- and TGFβ-mediated Cdkn1a transcription. FOXG1 prevents cell cycle exit by binding to the SMAD/FOXO-protein complex. In this study we provide further details on the FOXG1/FOXO/SMAD transcription factor network. We identified ligands of the TGFβ- and IGF-family, Foxo1, Foxo3 and Kcnh3 as novel FOXG1-target genes during telencephalic development and showed that FOXG1 interferes with Foxo1 and Tgfβ transcription. Our data specify that FOXO1 activates Cdkn1a transcription. This process is under control of the IGF1-pathway, as Cdkn1a transcription increases when IGF1-signaling is pharmacologically inhibited. However, overexpression of CDKN1A and knockdown of Foxo1 and Foxo3 is not sufficient for neuronal differentiation, which is probably instructed by TGFβ-signaling. In mature neurons, FOXG1 activates transcription of the seizure-related Kcnh3, which might be a FOXG1-target gene involved in the FOXG1 syndrome pathology.
Neuronal Activity, TGFβ-Signaling and Unpredictable Chronic Stress Modulate Transcription of Gadd45 Family Members and DNA Methylation in the Hippocampus Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). | Pubmed ID: 28444170 Neuronal activity is altered in several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Upon depolarization not only neurotransmitters are released but also cytokines and other activators of signaling cascades. Unraveling their complex implication in transcriptional control in receiving cells will contribute to understand specific central nervous system (CNS) pathologies and will be of therapeutically interest. In this study we depolarized mature hippocampal neurons in vitro using KCl and revealed increased release not only of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but also of transforming growth factor beta (TGFB). Neuronal activity together with BDNF and TGFB controls transcription of DNA modifying enzymes specifically members of the DNA-damage-inducible (Gadd) family, Gadd45a, Gadd45b, and Gadd45g. MeDIP followed by massive parallel sequencing and transcriptome analyses revealed less DNA methylation upon KCl treatment. Psychiatric disorder-related genes, namely Tshz1, Foxn3, Jarid2, Per1, Map3k5, and Arc are transcriptionally activated and demethylated upon neuronal activation. To analyze whether misexpression of Gadd45 family members are associated with psychiatric diseases, we applied unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) as established model for depression to mice. UCMS led to reduced expression of Gadd45 family members. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Gadd45 family members are new putative targets for UCMS treatments.
Neural Deletion of Tgfbr2 Impairs Angiogenesis Through an Altered Secretome Human Molecular Genetics. Dec, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24990151 Simultaneous generation of neural cells and that of the nutrient-supplying vasculature during brain development is called neurovascular coupling. We report on a transgenic mouse with impaired transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-signalling in forebrain-derived neural cells using a Foxg1-cre knock-in to drive the conditional knock-out of the Tgfbr2. Although the expression of FOXG1 is assigned to neural progenitors and neurons of the telencephalon, Foxg1(cre/+);Tgfbr2(flox/flox) (Tgfbr2-cKO) mutants displayed intracerebral haemorrhage. Blood vessels exhibited an atypical, clustered appearance were less in number and displayed reduced branching. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1, IGF2, TGFβ, inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) 1, thrombospondin (THBS) 2, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) 1 were altered in either expression levels or tissue distribution. Accordingly, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) displayed branching defects after stimulation with conditioned medium (CM) that was derived from primary neural cultures of the ventral and dorsal telencephalon of Tgfbr2-cKO. Supplementing CM of Tgfbr2-cKO with VEGFA rescued these defects, but application of TGFβ aggravated them. HUVEC showed reduced migration towards CM of mutants compared with controls. Supplementing the CM with growth factors VEGFA, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and IGF1 partially restored HUVEC migration. In contrast, TGFβ supplementation further impaired migration of HUVEC. We observed differences along the dorso-ventral axis of the telencephalon with regard to the impact of these factors on the phenotype. Together these data establish a TGFBR2-dependent molecular crosstalk between neural and endothelial cells during brain vessel development. These findings will be useful to further elucidate neurovascular interaction in general and to understand pathologies of the blood vessel system such as intracerebral haemorrhages, hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, Alzheimeŕs disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy or tumour biology.