Articles by Stephanie R. Thompson in JoVE
Techniques for the Evolution of Robust Pentose-fermenting Yeast for Bioconversion of Lignocellulose to Ethanol Patricia J. Slininger1, Maureen A. Shea-Andersh1, Stephanie R. Thompson1, Bruce S. Dien1, Cletus P. Kurtzman2, Leonardo Da Costa Sousa3, Venkatesh Balan3 1Bioenergy Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 2Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 3Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Great Lakes Bioenergy Center, Michigan State University Adaptive evolution and isolation techniques are described and demonstrated to yield derivatives of Scheffersomyces stipitis strain NRRL Y-7124 that are able to rapidly consume hexose and pentose mixed sugars in enzyme saccharified undetoxified hydrolyzates and to accumulate over 40 g/L ethanol.
Other articles by Stephanie R. Thompson on PubMed
Repression of Xylose-specific Enzymes by Ethanol in Scheffersomyces (Pichia) Stipitis and Utility of Repitching Xylose-grown Populations to Eliminate Diauxic Lag Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21370229 During the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates to ethanol by native pentose-fermenting yeasts such as Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124 (CBS 5773) and Pachysolen tannophilus NRRL Y-2460, the switch from glucose to xylose uptake results in a diauxic lag unless process strategies to prevent this are applied. When yeast were grown on glucose and resuspended in mixed sugars, the length of this lag was observed to be a function of the glucose concentration consumed (and consequently, the ethanol concentration accumulated) prior to the switch from glucose to xylose fermentation. At glucose concentrations of 95 g/L, the switch to xylose utilization was severely stalled such that efficient xylose fermentation could not occur. Further investigation focused on the impact of ethanol on cellular xylose transport and the induction and maintenance of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities when large cell populations of S. stipitis NRRL Y-7124 were pre-grown on glucose or xylose and then presented mixtures of glucose and xylose for fermentation. Ethanol concentrations around 50 g/L fully repressed enzyme induction although xylose transport into the cells was observed to be occurring. Increasing degrees of repression were documented between 15 and 45 g/L ethanol. Repitched cell populations grown on xylose resulted in faster fermentation rates, particularly on xylose but also on glucose, and eliminated diauxic lag and stalling during mixed sugar conversion by P. tannophilus or S. stipitis, despite ethanol accumulations in the 60 or 70 g/L range, respectively. The process strategy of priming cells on xylose was key to the successful utilization of high mixed sugar concentrations because specific enzymes for xylose utilization could be induced before ethanol concentration accumulated to an inhibitory level.
Evolved Strains of Scheffersomyces Stipitis Achieving High Ethanol Productivity on Acid- and Base-pretreated Biomass Hydrolyzate at High Solids Loading Biotechnology for Biofuels. 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25878726 Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock useful for the production of fuel-grade ethanol via the processing steps of pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Traditional industrial yeasts do not ferment xylose and are not able to grow, survive, or ferment in concentrated hydrolyzates that contain enough sugar to support economical ethanol recovery since they are laden with toxic byproducts generated during pretreatment.
Comparative Lipid Production by Oleaginous Yeasts in Hydrolyzates of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Process Strategy for High Titers Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Aug, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26724417 Oleaginous yeasts can convert sugars to lipids with fatty acid profiles similar to those of vegetable oils, making them attractive for production of biodiesel. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source of sugars for yeast lipid production because it is abundant, potentially low cost, and renewable. However, lignocellulosic hydrolyzates are laden with byproducts which inhibit microbial growth and metabolism. With the goal of identifying oleaginous yeast strains able to convert plant biomass to lipids, we screened 32 strains from the ARS Culture Collection, Peoria, IL to identify four robust strains able to produce high lipid concentrations from both acid and base-pretreated biomass. The screening was arranged in two tiers using undetoxified enzyme hydrolyzates of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated cornstover as the primary screening medium and acid-pretreated switch grass as the secondary screening medium applied to strains passing the primary screen. Hydrolyzates were prepared at ∼18-20% solids loading to provide ∼110 g/L sugars at ∼56:39:5 mass ratio glucose:xylose:arabinose. A two stage process boosting the molar C:N ratio from 60 to well above 400 in undetoxified switchgrass hydrolyzate was optimized with respect to nitrogen source, C:N, and carbon loading. Using this process three strains were able to consume acetic acid and nearly all available sugars to accumulate 50-65% of cell biomass as lipid (w/w), to produce 25-30 g/L lipid at 0.12-0.22 g/L/h and 0.13-0.15 g/g or 39-45% of the theoretical yield at pH 6 and 7, a performance unprecedented in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. Three of the top strains have not previously been reported for the bioconversion of lignocellulose to lipids. The successful identification and development of top-performing lipid-producing yeast in lignocellulose hydrolyzates is expected to advance the economic feasibility of high quality biodiesel and jet fuels from renewable biomass, expanding the market potential for lignocellulose-derived fuels beyond ethanol for automobiles to the entire U.S. transportation market. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1676-1690. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.