Articles by Stephanie Flaherty in JoVE
Mouse Naïve CD4+ T Cell Isolation and In vitro Differentiation into T Cell Subsets Stephanie Flaherty1, Joseph M. Reynolds1 1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science Naïve CD4+ T cells polarize to various subsets depending on the environment at the time of activation. The differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells to various effector subsets can be achieved in vitro through the addition of T cell receptor stimuli and specific cytokine signals.
Other articles by Stephanie Flaherty on PubMed
RAGE, LRP-1, and Amyloid-beta Protein in Alzheimer's Disease Acta Neuropathologica. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16865397 The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is thought to be a primary transporter of beta-amyloid across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the brain from the systemic circulation, while the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)-1 mediates transport of beta-amyloid out of the brain. To determine whether there are Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related changes in these BBB-associated beta-amyloid receptors, we studied RAGE, LRP-1, and beta-amyloid in human elderly control and AD hippocampi. In control hippocampi, there was robust RAGE immunoreactivity in neurons, whereas microvascular staining was barely detectable. LRP-1 staining, in contrast, was clearly evident within microvessels but only weakly stained neurons. In AD cases, neuronal RAGE immunoreactivity was significantly decreased. An unexpected finding was the strongly positive microvascular RAGE immunoreactivity. No evidence for colocalization of RAGE and beta-amyloid was seen within either microvessels or senile plaques. A reversed pattern was evident for LRP-1 in AD. There was very strong staining for LRP-1 in neurons, with minimal microvascular staining. Unlike RAGE, colocalization of LRP-1 and beta-amyloid was clearly present within senile plaques but not microvessels. Western blot analysis revealed a much higher concentration of RAGE protein in AD hippocampi as compared with controls. Concentration of LRP-1 was increased in AD hippocampi, likely secondary to its colocalization with senile plaques. These data confirm that AD is associated with changes in the relative distribution of RAGE and LRP-1 receptors in human hippocampus. They also suggest that the proportion of amyloid within the brains of AD patients that is derived from the systemic circulation may be significant.
IFI16 Restricts HSV-1 Replication by Accumulating on the Hsv-1 Genome, Repressing HSV-1 Gene Expression, and Directly or Indirectly Modulating Histone Modifications PLoS Pathogens. Nov, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25375629 Interferon-γ inducible factor 16 (IFI16) is a multifunctional nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation, induction of interferon-β (IFN-β), and activation of the inflammasome response. It interacts with the sugar-phosphate backbone of dsDNA and modulates viral and cellular transcription through largely undetermined mechanisms. IFI16 is a restriction factor for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), though the mechanisms of HSV-1 restriction are not yet understood. Here, we show that IFI16 has a profound effect on HSV-1 replication in human foreskin fibroblasts, osteosarcoma cells, and breast epithelial cancer cells. IFI16 knockdown increased HSV-1 yield 6-fold and IFI16 overexpression reduced viral yield by over 5-fold. Importantly, HSV-1 gene expression, including the immediate early proteins, ICP0 and ICP4, the early proteins, ICP8 and TK, and the late proteins gB and Us11, was reduced in the presence of IFI16. Depletion of the inflammasome adaptor protein, ASC, or the IFN-inducing transcription factor, IRF-3, did not affect viral yield. ChIP studies demonstrated the presence of IFI16 bound to HSV-1 promoters in osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells and fibroblasts. Using CRISPR gene editing technology, we generated U2OS cells with permanent deletion of IFI16 protein expression. ChIP analysis of these cells and wild-type (wt) U2OS demonstrated increased association of RNA polymerase II, TATA binding protein (TBP) and Oct1 transcription factors with viral promoters in the absence of IFI16 at different times post infection. Although IFI16 did not alter the total histone occupancy at viral or cellular promoters, its absence promoted markers of active chromatin and decreased those of repressive chromatin with viral and cellular gene promoters. Collectively, these studies for the first time demonstrate that IFI16 prevents association of important transcriptional activators with wt HSV-1 promoters and suggest potential mechanisms of IFI16 restriction of wt HSV-1 replication and a direct or indirect role for IFI16 in histone modification.
Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Induces Nrf2 Activation in Latently Infected Endothelial Cells Through SQSTM1 Phosphorylation and Interaction with Polyubiquitinated Keap1 Journal of Virology. Feb, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25505069 Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the cellular master regulator of the antioxidant response, dissociates from its inhibitor Keap1 when activated by stress signals and participates in the pathogenesis of viral infections and tumorigenesis. Early during de novo infection of endothelial cells, KSHV induces Nrf2 through an intricate mechanism involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). When we investigated the Nrf2 activity during latent KSHV infection, we observed increased nuclear serine-40-phosphorylated Nrf2 in human KS lesions compared to that in healthy tissues. Using KSHV long-term-infected endothelial cells (LTC) as a cellular model for KS, we demonstrated that KSHV infection induces Nrf2 constitutively by extending its half-life, increasing its phosphorylation by protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) via the infection-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/PGE2 axis and inducing its nuclear localization. Nrf2 knockdown in LTC decreased expression of antioxidant genes and genes involved in KS pathogenesis such as the NAD(P)H quinone oxidase 1 (NQO1), gamma glutamylcysteine synthase heavy unit (γGCSH), the cysteine transporter (xCT), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) genes. Nrf2 activation was independent of oxidative stress but dependent on the autophagic protein sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1; p62). SQSTM1 levels were elevated in LTC, a consequence of protein accumulation due to decreased autophagy and Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activation. SQSTM1 was phosphorylated on serine-351 and -403, while Keap1 was polyubiquitinated with lysine-63-ubiquitin chains, modifications known to increase their mutual affinity and interaction, leading to Keap1 degradation and Nrf2 activation. The latent KSHV protein Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin-1β-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein (vFLIP) increased SQSTM1 expression and activated Nrf2. Collectively, these results demonstrate that KSHV induces SQSTM1 to constitutively activate Nrf2, which is involved in the regulation of genes participating in KSHV oncogenesis.