In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (14)

Articles by Stephen C. Juvet in JoVE

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Measurement of T Cell Alloreactivity Using Imaging Flow Cytometry

1Division of Respirology, Departments of Medicine and Immunology, Toronto Lung Transplant Program, Multiorgan Transplant Program, Toronto General Research Institute, University of Toronto and University Health Network, 2Latner Thoracic Surgery Laboratories, Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, 3National Institutes of Health Research, Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Translational Immunology Laboratory, NDORMS, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford, 4Transplantation Research Immunology Group, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford

JoVE 55283

Other articles by Stephen C. Juvet on PubMed

High Dose Intravenous Methylprednisolone in the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

Canadian Respiratory Journal. May-Jun, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15254615

The case of a 72-year-old woman with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome is reported. While on treatment with ribavirin and antibiotics (for community-acquired pneumonia), the patient continued to have progressive clinical deterioration and chest radiographic evidence of respiratory deterioration. Pulse dose intravenous corticosteroids were used in an unsuccessful attempt to treat the inflammatory component of this respiratory illness.

Rare Lung Diseases I--Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Canadian Respiratory Journal. Oct, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 17036091

The present article is the first in a series that will review selected rare lung diseases. The objective of this series is to promote a greater understanding and awareness of these unusual conditions among respirologists. Each article will begin with a case that serves as a focal point for a discussion of the pathophysiology and management of the particular condition. The first article is on lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM); subsequent articles will focus on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and primary ciliary dyskinesia. LAM is a rare, progressive and (without intervention) often fatal interstitial lung disease that predominantly affects women of childbearing age. LAM is characterized by progressive interstitial infiltration of the lung by smooth muscle cells, resulting in diffuse cystic changes of the lung parenchyma. The molecular basis of this disorder has been delineated over the past five years and LAM is now known to be a consequence of mutations in the tuberous sclerosis genes. This knowledge, combined with advances in our understanding of the signalling pathways regulated by these genes, has given rise to potential molecular therapies that hold great promise for treating this devastating disease.

Molecular Pathogenesis of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Lessons Learned from Orphans

American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Apr, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17099139

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare progressive cystic lung disease affecting young women. The pivotal observation that LAM occurs both spontaneously and as part of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) led to the hypothesis that these disorders share common genetic and pathogenetic mechanisms. In this review we describe the evolution of our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of LAM and TSC, beginning with the discovery of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes and the demonstration of their involvement in sporadic (non-TSC) LAM. This was followed by rapid delineation of the signaling pathways in Drosophila melanogaster with confirmation in mice and humans. This knowledge served as the foundation for novel therapeutic approaches that are currently being used in human clinical trials.

Rare Lung Disease II: Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

Canadian Respiratory Journal. May-Jun, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18551202

The present article is the second in a series on rare lung diseases. It focuses on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a disorder in which lipoproteinaceous material accumulates in the alveolar space. PAP was first described in 1958, and for many years the nature of the material accumulating in the lungs was unknown. Major insights into PAP have been made in the past decade, and these have led to the notion that PAP is an autoimmume disorder in which autoantibodies interfere with signalling through the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, leading to macrophage and neutrophil dysfunction. This has spurred new therapeutic approaches to this disorder. The discussion of PAP will begin with a case report, then will highlight the classification of PAP and review recent insights into the pathogenesis of PAP. The approach to therapy and the prognosis of PAP will also be discussed.

Prostaglandin E2 Signaling Through E Prostanoid Receptor 2 Impairs Proliferative Response of Double Negative Regulatory T Cells

International Immunopharmacology. May, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19539567

Limited data are available on the mechanisms that constrain the function of regulatory populations of T cells. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an endogenous membrane phospholipid metabolite that has important immunomodulatory effects on T cell function. Our previous microarray data indicated that E prostanoid receptor 2 (EP2), a receptor for PGE2, is expressed by regulatory alphabetaTCR(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) NK1.1(-) double negative T (DN Treg) cell clones but not by their non-regulatory natural mutants. Hence, the hypothesis that PGE2 may influence DN Treg cell proliferation and/or regulatory function was tested in this study. Our data indicate that PGE2 acts via the EP2 receptor on DN Treg cells to inhibit their proliferation, an effect reproduced by the EP2-specific agonist butaprost and abrogated by the EP2 antagonist AH6809. In contrast, PGE2 did not affect the ability of DN Treg cells to kill syngeneic CD8(+) T cells activated by allogeneic stimulation. Together, these findings suggest a role for PGE2 in limiting the expansion of DN Treg cells.

Rare Lung Diseases III: Pulmonary Langerhans' Cell Histiocytosis

Canadian Respiratory Journal. May-Jun, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20617216

Pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is an unusual cystic lung disease that is also characterized by extrapulmonary manifestations. The current review discusses the presenting features and relevant diagnostic testing and treatment options for PLCH in the context of a clinical case. While the focus of the present article is adult PLCH and its pulmonary manifestations, it is important for clinicians to distinguish the adult and pediatric forms of the disease, as well as to be alert for possible extrapulmonary complications. A major theme of the current series of articles on rare lung diseases has been the translation of insights gained from fundamental research to the clinic. Accordingly, the understanding of dendritic cell biology in this disease has led to important advances in the care of patients with PLCH.

Regulatory CD4(-)CD8(-) Double Negative T Cells

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 20941604

Peripheral αβTCR(+)CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) NK1.1/CD56(-) double-negative (DN) Treg cells are a relatively rare subset of regulatory cells found in both humans and mice, typically comprising less than 5% of the total peripheral T-cell pool. Numerous studies have shown that DN Tregs can inhibit CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses in vitro and in vivo using a variety of model systems [Zhang et al., Nature Medicine 6:782, 2000; Young et al., Blood 100:3408, 2002; Ford et al., Experimental Medicine 196:261, 2002; Young et al., Journal of Immunology 171:134, 2003; Ford et al., European Journal of Immunology 37:2234, 2007; Zhang et al., Blood 109:4071, 2007; Fischer et al., Blood 105:2828, 2005]. This chapter describes published methods for the phenotypic identification of DN Tregs, their isolation from secondary lymphoid organs of mice or human peripheral blood, activation and expansion, and assays for their ability to suppress T-cell proliferation, induce apoptosis, and promote tolerance to allografts in vivo.

Regulation of Antigen-expressing Dendritic Cells by Double Negative Regulatory T Cells

European Journal of Immunology. Sep, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21660936

TCRαβ(+) CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) NK1.1(-) double negative (DN) Tregs comprise 1-3% of peripheral T lymphocytes in mice and humans. It has been demonstrated that DN Tregs can suppress allo-, xeno- and auto-immune responses in an Ag-specific fashion. However, the mechanisms by which DN Tregs regulate immune responses remain elusive. Whether DN Tregs can regulate DCs has not been investigated previously. In this study, we demonstrate that DN Tregs express a high level of CTLA4 and are able to down-regulate costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 expressed on Ag-expressing mature DCs (mDCs). DN Tregs from CTLA4 KO mice were not able to downregulate CD80 and CD86 expression, indicating that CTLA4 is critical for DN Treg-mediated downregulation of costimulatory molecule expression on Ag-expressing mature DCs. Furthermore, DN Tregs could kill both immature and mature allogeneic DCs, as well as Ag-loaded syngeneic DCs, in an Ag-specific manner in vitro and in vivo, mainly through the Fas-FasL pathway. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that DN Tregs are potent regulators of DCs and may have the potential to be developed as a novel immune suppression treatment.

Double Negative Regulatory T Cells in Transplantation and Autoimmunity: Recent Progress and Future Directions

Journal of Molecular Cell Biology. Feb, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22294241

T lymphocytes bearing the αβ T cell receptor (TCR) but lacking CD4, CD8, and markers of natural killer (NK) cell differentiation are known as 'double-negative' (DN) T cells and have been described in both humans and rodent models. We and others have shown that DN T cells can act as regulatory T cells (Tregs) that are able to prevent allograft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, and autoimmune diabetes. In the last few years, new data have revealed evidence of DN Treg function in vivo in rodents and humans. Moreover, significant advances have been made in the mechanisms by which DN Tregs target antigen-specific T cells. One major limitation of the field is the lack of a specific marker that can be used to distinguish truly regulatory DN T cells (DN Tregs) from non-regulatory ones, and this is the central challenge in the coming years. Here, we review recent progress on the role of DN Tregs in transplantation and autoimmunity, and their mechanisms of action. We also provide some perspectives on how DN Tregs compare with Foxp3(+) Tregs.

Autocrine IFNγ Controls the Regulatory Function of Lymphoproliferative Double Negative T Cells

PloS One. 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23077665

TCRαβ(+) CD4(-)CD8(-)NK(-) double negative T cells (DN T cells) can act as regulatory T cells to inhibit allograft rejection and autoimmunity. Their role in graft-versus-host disease and mechanisms of suppression remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that DN T cells can inhibit CD4(+) T cell-mediated GVHD in a semi-allogeneic model of bone marrow transplantation. Furthermore, we present evidence of a novel autocrine IFNγ signaling pathway in Fas-deficient C57BL/6.lpr (B6.lpr) DN T cells. B6.lpr DN T cells lacking IFNγ or its receptor were impaired in their ability to suppress syngeneic CD4(+) T cells responding to alloantigen stimulation both in vitro and in vivo. Autocrine IFNγ signaling was required for sustained B6.lpr DN T cell IFNγ secretion in vivo and for upregulation of surface Fas ligand expression during TCR stimulation. Fas ligand (FasL) expression by B6.lpr DN T cells permitted lysis of activated CD4(+) T cells and was required for suppression of GVHD. Collectively, our data indicate that DN T cells can inhibit GVHD and that IFNγ plays a critical autocrine role in controlling the regulatory function of B6.lpr DN T cells.

Rejection of Tracheal Allograft by Intrapulmonary Lymphoid Neogenesis in the Absence of Secondary Lymphoid Organs

Transplantation. Jun, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23318304

Obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation is associated with intrapulmonary lymphoid neogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of lymphoid neogenesis, especially its relationship with secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) in allograft airway rejection.

FcRγ Promotes T Cell Apoptosis in Fas-deficient Mice

Journal of Autoimmunity. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23313147

Deficiency of Fas or its ligand leads to lymphocyte accumulation, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoimmunity in mice and humans. Although the Fas pathway is important for limiting the number of peripheral T cells, inactivation of other pro-apoptotic molecules can also perturb T cell homeostasis independently of and/or in concert with Fas deficiency. Here, we show that combined deficiency of Fas and the Fc receptor common γ signaling chain (FcRγ) results in worsened T cell accumulation in comparison with mice lacking Fas alone, with a particularly marked increase in the number of TCRαβ(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells. LPR FcRγ(-/-) mice exhibited reduced survival due to progressive lymphadenopathy. We further investigated the mechanisms whereby FcRγ deficiency promotes lymphoproliferative disease in Fas-mutant mice. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in T cell proliferation between LPR FcRγ(+/+) and LPR FcRγ(-/-) mice in vivo and in vitro. However, FcRγ deletion resulted in significantly decreased peripheral T cell apoptosis. Importantly, the observed increase in apoptosis was restricted to a subset of FcRγ(+) T cells. These T cells, but not those lacking FcRγ expression, exhibited increased activation of caspases 3 and 9, indicating a role for FcRγ in driving their apoptosis. FcRγ(+) DN T cells also showed enhanced sensitivity to TCR restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) despite lacking Fas, suggesting that TCR stimulation of autoreactive T cells in vivo may serve to eliminate FcRγ(+) T cells and thus exert partial control over lymphoproliferative disease. Hence, our data reveal a novel role for FcRγ in promoting peripheral T cell apoptosis in Fas-deficient mice, which may be of significant value in understanding autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes.

FcRγ Controls the Fas-dependent Regulatory Function of Lymphoproliferative Double Negative T Cells

PloS One. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23762329

Patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and lymphoproliferation (LPR) mice are deficient in Fas, and accumulate large numbers of αβ-TCR(+), CD4(-), CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells. The function of these DN T cells remains largely unknown. The common γ subunit of the activating Fc receptors, FcRγ, plays an important role in mediating innate immune responses. We have shown previously that a significant proportion of DN T cells express FcRγ, and that this molecule is required for TCR transgenic DN T cells to suppress allogeneic immune responses. Whether FcRγ plays a critical role in LPR DN T cell-mediated suppression of immune responses to auto and allo-antigens is not known. Here, we demonstrated that FcRγ(+), but not FcRγ(-) LPR DN T cells could suppress Fas(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation in vitro and attenuated CD4(+) T cell-mediated graft-versus host disease. Although FcRγ expression did not allow LPR DN T cells to inhibit the expansion of Fas-deficient cells within the LPR context, adoptive transfer of FcRγ(+), but not FcRγ(-), DN T cells inhibited lymphoproliferation in generalized lymphoproliferative disease (GLD) mice. Furthermore, FcRγ acted in a cell-intrinsic fashion to limit DN T cell accumulation by increasing the rate of apoptosis in proliferated cells. These results indicate that FcRγ can confer Fas-dependent regulatory properties on LPR DN T cells, and suggest that FcRγ may be a novel marker for functional DN Tregs.

Halofuginone Treatment Reduces Interleukin-17A and Ameliorates Features of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction in a Mouse Orthotopic Lung Transplant Model

The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation : the Official Publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26787621

Increasing evidence suggests that interleukin (IL)-17A plays an important role in chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), characterized by airway and lung parenchymal fibrosis, after lung transplantation. Halofuginone is a plant derivative that has been shown to inhibit Th17 differentiation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of halofuginone on CLAD development using a minor alloantigen‒mismatched mouse orthotopic lung transplant model.

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