In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (11)
- Developmental Neuroscience
- Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews
- Annual Review of Neuroscience
- Pediatric Research
- Neuropsychology Review
- Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS
- Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
- Brain and Language
- Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
- Epilepsy & Behavior : E&B
Articles by Susan Y. Bookheimer in JoVE
Gegeneraliseerde psychofysiologische interactie (PPI) analyse van geheugen gerelateerde connectiviteit in personen die erfelijk risico op de ziekte van Alzheimer Theresa M. Harrison1, Donald G. McLaren2, Teena D. Moody1, Jamie D. Feusner1, Susan Y. Bookheimer1 1Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Biospective, Inc. Dit manuscript wordt beschreven hoe de uitvoering van een analyse van de psychofysiologische interactie te onthullen taak-afhankelijke wijzigingen in functionele connectiviteit tussen een geselecteerde zaad regio en voxels in andere delen van de hersenen. Psychofysiologische interactie analyse is een populaire methode om taak effecten op hersenen connectiviteit, onderscheiden van traditionele univariate activering effecten te analyseren.
Other articles by Susan Y. Bookheimer on PubMed
Functional MRI in Children with Epilepsy Developmental Neuroscience. Nov, 1999 | Pubmed ID: 10575242 Advances in brain mapping with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have opened an important window into understanding how language is organized in the developing brain. Children with epilepsy, particularly those anticipating surgical intervention, may benefit from preoperative language localization with fMRI, thus minimizing the risk of incurring new deficits. Clinical applications of fMRI, however, await more information on how different linguistic skills are represented in the developing brain and how epileptic lesions impact on this organization at different stages of cognitive development. This article presents some of the current methods for brain mapping in children as well as early results using fMRI for language mapping in pediatric epilepsy.
Methodological Issues in Pediatric Neuroimaging Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 2000 | Pubmed ID: 10982492 The emergence of new technologies to study brain function in vivo has resulted in an explosion of interest in cognitive neuroscience within the last ten years. While most research in functional neuroimaging has been geared toward adult normal volunteers, the development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has made it possible to study neural development in normal children, as well as those with developmental disorders. This technology provides an unprecedented opportunity to expand our knowledge of brain function throughout childhood. A variety of technological, experimental, and practical difficulties are amplified when imaging children. This paper reviews some of the more challenging theoretical and practical concerns and provides suggestions for their management.
Functional MRI of Language: New Approaches to Understanding the Cortical Organization of Semantic Processing Annual Review of Neuroscience. 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12052907 Until recently, our understanding of how language is organized in the brain depended on analysis of behavioral deficits in patients with fortuitously placed lesions. The availability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for in vivo analysis of the normal brain has revolutionized the study of language. This review discusses three lines of fMRI research into how the semantic system is organized in the adult brain. These are (a) the role of the left inferior frontal lobe in semantic processing and dissociations from other frontal lobe language functions, (b) the organization of categories of objects and concepts in the temporal lobe, and (c) the role of the right hemisphere in comprehending contextual and figurative meaning. Together, these lines of research broaden our understanding of how the brain stores, retrieves, and makes sense of semantic information, and they challenge some commonly held notions of functional modularity in the language system.
Pre-surgical Language Mapping with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Neuropsychology Review. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17484055 Patients with lesions in or near eloquent cortex typically undergo one of several invasive techniques to prevent loss of function following surgery. One of the most promising potential clinical applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is to map these functions as part of the pre-surgical work-up to identify patients at-risk, guide the surgical entry, or tailor the surgical procedure to prevent deficits. While motor and sensory mapping are relatively straightforward, language mapping is far more complex. The language system is variable in location across individuals and in many cases may reorganize partially or completely to the contralateral hemisphere. In addition, multiple regions of the brain contribute to language functioning including essential regions that must not be removed in surgery, and contributory regions that may result in transient or insignificant impairments post-surgery. Despite these challenges, an increasing number of studies have supported the use of fMRI for pre-surgical language mapping in a variety of disorders. This article reviews the literature from three disorders for which patients benefit from preoperative language mapping: epilepsy, brain tumors, and arteriovenous malformations. Each disorder presents unique challenges to language mapping. Specific case studies are presented highlighting the both the potential benefits of preclinical fMRI for language mapping as well as the potential risks and pitfalls.
Frontal Contributions to Face Processing Differences in Autism: Evidence from FMRI of Inverted Face Processing Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18954473 Functional neuroimaging studies of face processing deficits in autism have typically focused on visual processing regions, such as the fusiform face area (FFA), which have shown reduced activity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), though inconsistently. We recently reported reduced activity in the inferior frontal region in ASD, implicating impaired mirror-neuron systems during face processing. In the present study, we used fMRI during a face processing task in which subjects had to match faces presented in the upright versus inverted position. Typically developing (TD) children showed a classic behavioral inversion effect, increased reaction time for inverted faces, while this effect was significantly reduced in ASD subjects. The fMRI data showed similar responses in the fusiform face area for ASD and TD children, with both groups demonstrating increased activation for inverted faces. However, the groups did differ in several brain regions implicated in social cognition, particularly prefrontal cortex and amygdala. These data suggest that the behavioral differences in processing upright versus inverted faces for TD children are related not to visual information processing but to the social significance of the stimuli. Our results are consistent with other recent studies implicating frontal and limbic dysfunction during face processing in autism.
APOE-4 Genotype and Neurophysiological Vulnerability to Alzheimer's and Cognitive Aging Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19327032 Many years before receiving a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients experience evidence of cognitive decline. Recent studies using a variety of brain imaging technologies have detected subtle changes in brain structure and function in normal adults with a genetic risk for AD; these brain changes have similar pathological features as AD, and some appear to be predictive of future cognitive decline. This review examines the most recent data on brain changes in genetic risk for AD and discusses the benefits and potential risks of detecting individuals at risk.
Language System Organization in a Quadrilingual with a Brain Tumor: Implications for Understanding of the Language Network Neuropsychologia. Jun, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27143224 In pre-neurosurgery language mapping it is critical to identify language-specific regions in multilingual speakers. We conducted pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging, and intraoperative language mapping in the unique case of a highly proficient quadrilingual with a left frontal brain tumor who acquired her second language at age 5, and her third and fourth languages at 15. We found a predominantly different organization in each language with only a few areas shared by all 4 languages. Contrary to existing evidence, impairment across languages was not related to age of acquisition, amount of exposure, or language similarity. This case suggests that the functional structure of the language system may be highly idiosyncratic in multilingual individuals and supports detailed study in this group to inform neurocognitive models of language.
Lateralizing Language Function with Pre-operative Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Early Proficient Bilingual Patients Brain and Language. Jul, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28343082 Research on bilinguals with brain lesions is complicated by high patient variability, making it difficult to find well-matched controls. We benefitted from a database of over 700 patients and conducted an analysis of pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging data to assess language dominance in 25 early, highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals, and 25 carefully matched monolingual controls. Our results showed that early bilingualism is associated with greater bilateral hemispheric involvement, and monolingualism is associated with stronger left hemisphere lateralization (p=0.009). The bilinguals showed more pronounced right hemisphere activation (p=0.008). Although language dominance values were concordant in the bilingual group, there were a few (12%) atypical cases with different lateralization patterns in L1 and L2. Finally, we found distinct areas of activity in first and second language within the language network, in addition to regions of convergence. These data underscore the need to map all languages proficiently spoken by surgical candidates.
Biomedical Ethics and Clinical Oversight in Multisite Observational Neuroimaging Studies with Children and Adolescents: The ABCD Experience Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. Jun, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28716389 Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles. To illustrate, we will review the ABCD approach to three areas: (1) hazardous substance use; (2) neurological anomalies; and (3) imminent potential for self-harm or harm to others. Each ABCD site is responsible for implementing procedures consistent with these guidelines in accordance with their Institutional Review Board approved protocols, state regulations, and local resources. To assure that each site has related plans and resources in place, site emergency procedures manuals have been developed, documented and reviewed for adherence to ABCD guidelines. This article will describe the principles and process used to develop these ABCD bioethics and medical oversight guidelines, the concerns and options considered, and the resulting approaches advised to sites.
Assessment of Grammar Optimizes Language Tasks for the Intracarotid Amobarbital Procedure Epilepsy & Behavior : E&B. Nov, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28923498 A previous study showed that assessment of language laterality could be improved by adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) (Połczyńska et al. 2014). The aim of this study was to further investigate the extent to which grammar tests lateralize language function during the recovery phase of the IAP in a larger patient sample.