In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (10)

Articles by Tabrez J. Siddiqui in JoVE

Other articles by Tabrez J. Siddiqui on PubMed

Evidence for Early Endosome-like Fusion of Recently Endocytosed Synaptic Vesicles

Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark). Sep, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 17004320

Early endosomes are well-established acceptor compartments of endocytic vesicles in many cell types. Little evidence of their existence or function has been obtained in synapses, and it is generally believed that synaptic vesicles recycle without passing through an endosomal intermediate. We show here that the early endosomal SNARE proteins are enriched in synaptic vesicles. To investigate their function in the synapse, we isolated synaptic nerve terminals (synaptosomes), stimulated them in presence of different fluorescent markers to label the recycling vesicles and used these vesicles in in vitro fusion assays. The recently endocytosed vesicles underwent homotypic fusion. They also fused with endosomes from PC12 and BHK cells. The fusion process was dependent upon NSF activity. Moreover, fusion was dependent upon the early endosomal SNAREs but not upon the SNAREs involved in exocytosis. Our results thus show that at least a fraction of the vesicles endocytosed during synaptic activity are capable of fusing with early endosomes and lend support to an involvement of endosomal intermediates during recycling of synaptic vesicles.

Determinants of Synaptobrevin Regulation in Membranes

Molecular Biology of the Cell. Jun, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17360966

Neuronal exocytosis is driven by the formation of SNARE complexes between synaptobrevin 2 on synaptic vesicles and SNAP-25/syntaxin 1 on the plasma membrane. It has remained controversial, however, whether SNAREs are constitutively active or whether they are down-regulated until fusion is triggered. We now show that synaptobrevin in proteoliposomes as well as in purified synaptic vesicles is constitutively active. Potential regulators such as calmodulin or synaptophysin do not affect SNARE activity. Substitution or deletion of residues in the linker connecting the SNARE motif and transmembrane region did not alter the kinetics of SNARE complex assembly or of SNARE-mediated fusion of liposomes. Remarkably, deletion of C-terminal residues of the SNARE motif strongly reduced fusion activity, although the overall stability of the complexes was not affected. We conclude that although complete zippering of the SNARE complex is essential for membrane fusion, the structure of the adjacent linker domain is less critical, suggesting that complete SNARE complex assembly not only connects membranes but also drives fusion.

LRRTMs and Neuroligins Bind Neurexins with a Differential Code to Cooperate in Glutamate Synapse Development

The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Jun, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20519524

Leucine-rich repeat transmembrane neuronal proteins (LRRTMs) were recently found to instruct presynaptic and mediate postsynaptic glutamatergic differentiation. In a candidate screen, here we identify neurexin-1beta lacking an insert at splice site 4 (-S4) as a ligand for LRRTM2. Neurexins bind LRRTM2 with a similar affinity but distinct code from the code for binding neuroligin-1 (the predominant form of neuroligin-1 at glutamate synapses, containing the B splice site insert). Whereas neuroligin-1 binds to neurexins 1, 2, and 3 beta but not alpha variants, regardless of insert at splice site 4, LRRTM2 binds to neurexins 1, 2, and 3 alpha and beta variants specifically lacking an insert at splice site 4. We further show that this binding code is conserved in LRRTM1, the family member linked to schizophrenia and handedness, and that the code is functional in a coculture hemisynapse formation assay. Mutagenesis of LRRTM2 to prevent binding to neurexins abolishes presynaptic inducing activity of LRRTM2. Remarkably, mutagenesis of neurexins shows that the binding face on neurexin-1beta (-S4) is highly overlapping for the structurally distinct LRRTM2 and neuroligin-1 partners. Finally, we explore here the interplay of neuroligin-1 and LRRTM2 in synapse regulation. In neuron cultures, LRRTM2 is more potent than neuroligin-1 in promoting synaptic differentiation, and, most importantly, these two families of neurexin-binding partners cooperate in an additive or synergistic manner. Thus, we propose a synaptic code hypothesis suggesting that neurexins are master regulators of the cooperative activities of LRRTMs and neuroligins.

Synaptic Organizing Complexes

Current Opinion in Neurobiology. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 20832286

A number of synaptogenic factors induce presynaptic or postsynaptic differentiation when presented to axons or dendrites. Many such factors participate in bidirectional trans-synaptic adhesion complexes. Axonal neurexins interacting in an isoform-specific code with multiple dendritic partners (neuroligins, LRRTMs, or Cbln-GluRδ), and axonal protein tyrosine phosphatase receptors interacting with dendritic NGL-3, nucleate local networks of high-affinity protein-protein interactions leading to aligned presynaptic and postsynaptic differentiation. Additional secreted target-derived factors such as fibroblast growth factors and glial-derived factors such as thrombospondin bind specific axonal or dendritic receptors stimulating signal transduction mechanisms to promote selective aspects of synapse development. Together with classical adhesion molecules and controlled by transcriptional cascades, these synaptogenic adhesion complexes and secreted factors organize the molecular composition and thus functional properties of central synapses.

Truncating Mutations in NRXN2 and NRXN1 in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia

Human Genetics. Oct, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21424692

Growing genetic evidence is converging in favor of common pathogenic mechanisms for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability (ID or mental retardation) and schizophrenia (SCZ), three neurodevelopmental disorders affecting cognition and behavior. Copy number variations and deleterious mutations in synaptic organizing proteins including NRXN1 have been associated with these neurodevelopmental disorders, but no such associations have been reported for NRXN2 or NRXN3. From resequencing the three neurexin genes in individuals affected by ASD (n = 142), SCZ (n = 143) or non-syndromic ID (n = 94), we identified a truncating mutation in NRXN2 in a patient with ASD inherited from a father with severe language delay and family history of SCZ. We also identified a de novo truncating mutation in NRXN1 in a patient with SCZ, and other potential pathogenic ASD mutations. These truncating mutations result in proteins that fail to promote synaptic differentiation in neuron coculture and fail to bind either of the established postsynaptic binding partners LRRTM2 or NLGN2 in cell binding assays. Our findings link NRXN2 disruption to the pathogenesis of ASD for the first time and further strengthen the involvement of NRXN1 in SCZ, supporting the notion of a common genetic mechanism in these disorders.

Active Zone Protein Expression Changes at the Key Stages of Cerebellar Cortex Neurogenesis in the Rat

Acta Histochemica. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23434052

Signal transduction and neurotransmitter release in the vertebrate central nervous system are confined to the structurally complex presynaptic electron dense projections called "active zones." Although the nature of these projections remains a mystery, genetic and biochemical work has provided evidence for the active zone (AZ) associated proteins i.e. Piccolo/Aczonin, Bassoon, RIM1/Unc10, Munc13/Unc13, Liprin-α/SYD2/Dliprin and ELKS/CAST/BRP and their specific molecular functions. It still remains unclear, however, what their precise contribution is to the AZ assembly. In our project, we studied in Wistar rats the temporal and spatial distribution of AZ proteins and their colocalization with Synaptophysin in the developing cerebellar cortex at key stages of cerebellum neurogenesis. Our study demonstrated that AZ proteins were already present at the very early stages of cerebellar neurogenesis and exhibited distinct spatial and temporal variations in immunoexpression throughout the course of the study. Colocalization analysis revealed that the colocalization pattern was time-dependent and different for each studied protein. The highest collective mean percentage of colocalization (>85%) was observed at postnatal day (PD) 5, followed by PD10 (>83%) and PD15 (>80%). The findings of our study shed light on AZ protein immunoexpression changes during cerebellar cortex neurogenesis and help frame a hypothetical model of AZ assembly.

An LRRTM4-HSPG Complex Mediates Excitatory Synapse Development on Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells

Neuron. Aug, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23911104

Selective synapse development determines how complex neuronal networks in the brain are formed. Complexes of postsynaptic neuroligins and LRRTMs with presynaptic neurexins contribute widely to excitatory synapse development, and mutations in these gene families increase the risk of developing psychiatric disorders. We find that LRRTM4 has distinct presynaptic binding partners, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). HSPGs are required to mediate the synaptogenic activity of LRRTM4. LRRTM4 shows highly selective expression in the brain. Within the hippocampus, we detected LRRTM4 specifically at excitatory postsynaptic sites on dentate gyrus granule cells. LRRTM4(-/-) dentate gyrus granule cells, but not CA1 pyramidal cells, exhibit reductions in excitatory synapse density and function. Furthermore, LRRTM4(-/-) dentate gyrus granule cells show impaired activity-regulated AMPA receptor trafficking. These results identifying cell-type-specific functions and multiple presynaptic binding partners for different LRRTM family members reveal an unexpected complexity in the design and function of synapse-organizing proteins.

The Specific α-neurexin Interactor Calsyntenin-3 Promotes Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapse Development

Neuron. Oct, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24094106

Perturbations of cell surface synapse-organizing proteins, particularly α-neurexins, contribute to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. From an unbiased screen, we identify calsyntenin-3 (alcadein-β) as a synapse-organizing protein unique in binding and recruiting α-neurexins, but not β-neurexins. Calsyntenin-3 is present in many pyramidal neurons throughout cortex and hippocampus but is most highly expressed in interneurons. The transmembrane form of calsyntenin-3 can trigger excitatory and inhibitory presynapse differentiation in contacting axons. However, calsyntenin-3-shed ectodomain, which represents about half the calsyntenin-3 pool in brain, suppresses the ability of multiple α-neurexin partners including neuroligin 2 and LRRTM2 to induce presynapse differentiation. Clstn3⁻/⁻ mice show reductions in excitatory and inhibitory synapse density by confocal and electron microscopy and corresponding deficits in synaptic transmission. These results identify calsyntenin-3 as an α-neurexin-specific binding partner required for normal functional GABAergic and glutamatergic synapse development.

Role of LRRTMs in Synapse Development and Plasticity

Neuroscience Research. Mar, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 27810425

Leucine-rich-repeat transmembrane neuronal proteins (LRRTMs) are a family of four synapse organizing proteins critical for the development and function of excitatory synapses. The genes encoding LRRTMs and their binding partners, neurexins and HSPGs, are strongly associated with multiple psychiatric disorders. Here, we review the literature covering their structural features, expression patterns in the developing and adult brains, evolutionary origins, and discovery as synaptogenic proteins. We also discuss their role in the development and plasticity of excitatory synapses as well as their disease associations.

In Situ Protein Binding Assay Using Fc-Fusion Proteins

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 27943185

This protocol describes an in situ protein-protein interaction assay between tagged recombinant proteins and cell-surface expressed synaptic proteins. The assay is arguably more sensitive than other traditional protein binding assays such as co-immunoprecipitation and pull-downs and provides a visual readout for binding. This assay has been widely used to determine the dissociation constant of binding of trans-synaptic adhesion proteins. The step-wise description in the protocol should facilitate the adoption of this method in other laboratories.

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