In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (2)

Articles by Tasneem Ansari in JoVE

 JoVE Medicine

Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic Clamps in Conscious, Unrestrained Mice

1Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 4Department of Pediatrics and Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine

JoVE 3188

Other articles by Tasneem Ansari on PubMed

Glucocorticoid-deficient Corticotropin-releasing Hormone Knockout Mice Maintain Glucose Requirements but Not Autonomic Responses During Repeated Hypoglycemia

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jul, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16449297

Glucocorticoids have been implicated in hypoglycemia-induced autonomic failure but also contribute to normal counterregulation. To determine the influence of normal and hypoglycemia-induced levels of glucocorticoids on counterregulatory responses to acute and repeated hypoglycemia, we compared plasma catecholamines, corticosterone, glucagon, and glucose requirements in male wild-type (WT) and glucocorticoid-deficient, corticotropin-releasing hormone knockout (CRH KO) mice. Conscious, chronically cannulated, unrestrained WT and CRH KO mice underwent a euglycemic (Prior Eu) or hypoglycemic clamp (Prior Hypo) on day 1 followed by a hypoglycemic clamp on day 2 (blood glucose both days, 65 +/- 1 mg/dl). Baseline epinephrine and glucagon were similar, and norepinephrine was elevated, in CRH KO vs. WT mice. CRH KO corticosterone was almost undetectable (<1.5 microg/dl) and unresponsive to hypoglycemia. CRH KO glucose requirements were significantly higher during day 1 hypoglycemia despite epinephrine and glucagon responses that were comparable to or greater than those in WT. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemia did not increase hormones or glucose requirements above baseline. On day 2, Prior Hypo WT had significantly higher glucose requirements and significantly lower corticosterone and glucagon responses. Prior Hypo and Prior Eu CRH KO mice had similar day 2 glucose requirements. However, Prior Hypo CRH KO mice had significantly lower day 2 epinephrine and norepinephrine vs. Prior Eu CRH KO and tended to have lower glucagon than on day 1. We conclude that glucocorticoid insufficiency in CRH KO mice correlates with 1) impaired counterregulation during acute hypoglycemia and 2) complex effects after repeated hypoglycemia, neither preventing decreased hormone responses nor worsening glucose requirements.

Counterregulatory Deficits Occur Within 24 H of a Single Hypoglycemic Episode in Conscious, Unrestrained, Chronically Cannulated Mice

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Apr, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16533951

Hypoglycemia-induced counterregulatory failure is a dangerous complication of insulin use in diabetes mellitus. Controlled hypoglycemia studies in gene knockout models, which require the use of mice, would aid in identifying causes of defective counterregulation. Because stress can influence counterregulatory hormones and glucose homeostasis, we developed glucose clamps with remote blood sampling in conscious, unrestrained mice. Male C57BL/6 mice implanted with indwelling carotid artery and jugular vein catheters were subjected to 2 h of hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps 24 h apart, with a 6-h fast before each clamp. On day 1, blood glucose was maintained (euglycemia, 178 +/- 4 mg/dl) or decreased to 62 +/- 1 mg/dl (hypoglycemia) by insulin (20 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and variable glucose infusion. Donor blood was continuously infused to replace blood sample volume. Baseline plasma epinephrine (32 +/- 8 pg/ml), corticosterone (16.1 +/- 1.8 microg/dl), and glucagon (35 +/- 3 pg/ml) were unchanged during euglycemia but increased significantly during hypoglycemia, with a glycemic threshold of approximately 80 mg/dl. On day 2, all mice underwent a hypoglycemic clamp (blood glucose, 64 +/- 1 mg/dl). Compared with mice that were euglycemic on day 1, previously hypoglycemic mice had significantly higher glucose requirements and significantly lower plasma glucagon and corticosterone (n = 6/group) on day 2. Epinephrine tended to decrease, although not significantly, in repeatedly hypoglycemic mice. Pre- and post-clamp insulin levels were similar between groups. We conclude that counterregulatory responses to acute and repeated hypoglycemia in unrestrained, chronically cannulated mice reproduce aspects of counterregulation in humans, and that repeated hypoglycemia in mice is a useful model of counterregulatory failure.

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